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Article

Effects of Hardwood Content on Balsam Fir Defoliation during the Building Phase of a Spruce Budworm Outbreak

1
Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
2
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, P.O. Box 4000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5P7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2018, 9(9), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090530
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection Strategy against Spruce Budworm)
Defoliation by spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) on balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) is more severe in fir than in mixed fir-hardwood stands. Previous studies assumed that defoliation in fir-hardwood stands was reduced in proportion to percent hardwood regardless of outbreak severity. We tested the influence of stand composition on defoliation during the first 5 years of a spruce budworm outbreak near Amqui, Quebec, by sampling 27 fir-hardwood plots selected to represent three percent hardwood basal area classes (0%–25%, 40%–65%, and 75%–95%). Balsam fir defoliation was significantly lower (p < 0.001) as hardwood content increased, but the relationship varied with overall defoliation severity each year. Annual plot defoliation in fir-hardwood plots, estimated using: (1) defoliation in pure fir plots and the assumption that defoliation in fir-hardwood plots was reduced in proportion to percent hardwood; (2) a generalized linear mixed-effects model with defoliation in pure fir plots, percent hardwood, and interaction as fixed-effects; and (3) Random Forests prediction incorporating 11 predictor variables, resulted in r = 0.77, 0.87, and 0.92 versus measured defoliation, respectively. Average defoliation severity in softwood plots and percent hardwood content were the most important variables in Random Forests analysis. Data on average defoliation level in softwood stands, as an indicator of overall outbreak severity, improves prediction of balsam fir defoliation in mixed stands. View Full-Text
Keywords: Choristoneura fumiferana; Abies balsamea; hardwood content; defoliation prediction Choristoneura fumiferana; Abies balsamea; hardwood content; defoliation prediction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, B.; MacLean, D.A.; Johns, R.C.; Eveleigh, E.S. Effects of Hardwood Content on Balsam Fir Defoliation during the Building Phase of a Spruce Budworm Outbreak. Forests 2018, 9, 530. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090530

AMA Style

Zhang B, MacLean DA, Johns RC, Eveleigh ES. Effects of Hardwood Content on Balsam Fir Defoliation during the Building Phase of a Spruce Budworm Outbreak. Forests. 2018; 9(9):530. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090530

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Bo, David A. MacLean, Rob C. Johns, and Eldon S. Eveleigh 2018. "Effects of Hardwood Content on Balsam Fir Defoliation during the Building Phase of a Spruce Budworm Outbreak" Forests 9, no. 9: 530. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090530

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