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Open AccessArticle

Development of a New TRIPLEX-Insect Model for Simulating the Effect of Spruce Budworm on Forest Carbon Dynamics

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Québec at Montreal, Montreal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada
2
Laurentian Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, QC G1V 4C7, Canada
3
Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, ON P6A 2E5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2018, 9(9), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090513
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
The spruce budworm (SBW) defoliates and kills conifer trees, consequently affecting carbon (C) exchanges between the land and atmosphere. Here, we developed a new TRIPLEX-Insect sub-model to quantify the impacts of insect outbreaks on forest C fluxes. We modeled annual defoliation (AD), cumulative defoliation (CD), and tree mortality. The model was validated against observed and published data at the stand level in the North Shore region of Québec and Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, Canada. The results suggest that TRIPLEX-Insect performs very well in capturing tree mortality following SBW outbreaks and slightly underestimates current annual volume increment (CAI). In both mature and immature forests, the simulation model suggests a larger reduction in gross primary productivity (GPP) than in autotrophic respiration (Ra) at the same defoliation level when tree mortality was low. After an SBW outbreak, the growth release of surviving trees contributes to the recovery of annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) based on forest age if mortality is not excessive. Overall, the TRIPLEX-Insect model is capable of simulating C dynamics of balsam fir following SBW disturbances and can be used as an efficient tool in forest insect management. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree mortality; natural disturbance; balsam fir; photosynthesis process; gross primary productivity tree mortality; natural disturbance; balsam fir; photosynthesis process; gross primary productivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Peng, C.; De Grandpré, L.; Candau, J.-N.; Zhou, X.; Kneeshaw, D. Development of a New TRIPLEX-Insect Model for Simulating the Effect of Spruce Budworm on Forest Carbon Dynamics. Forests 2018, 9, 513. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090513

AMA Style

Liu Z, Peng C, De Grandpré L, Candau J-N, Zhou X, Kneeshaw D. Development of a New TRIPLEX-Insect Model for Simulating the Effect of Spruce Budworm on Forest Carbon Dynamics. Forests. 2018; 9(9):513. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090513

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Zelin; Peng, Changhui; De Grandpré, Louis; Candau, Jean-Noël; Zhou, Xiaolu; Kneeshaw, Daniel. 2018. "Development of a New TRIPLEX-Insect Model for Simulating the Effect of Spruce Budworm on Forest Carbon Dynamics" Forests 9, no. 9: 513. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9090513

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