Next Article in Journal
Soil Erosion Risk Assessment in Uganda
Next Article in Special Issue
“Georgetown ain’t got a tree. We got the trees”—Amerindian Power & Participation in Guyana’s Low Carbon Development Strategy
Previous Article in Journal
Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Forest Islands and Castaway Communities: REDD+ and Forest Restoration in Prey Lang Forest

Resources and Rules of the Game: Participation of Civil Society in REDD+ and FLEGT‐VPA Processes in Lao PDR

Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, 80100 Joensuu, Finland
European Forest Institute, Yliopistokatu 6, 80100 Joensuu, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Heike Schroeder  and Esteve Corbera
Forests 2017, 8(2), 50;
Received: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REDD+ Crossroads Post Paris: Politics, Lessons and Interplays)
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to achieve its purpose by working across multiple sectors and involving multilevel actors in reducing deforestation and forest degradation in tropical countries. By contrast, the European Union (EU) Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) and its Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) focus on forestry and functions at a bilateral state level. The FLEGT Action Plan specifically aims to tackle illegal logging and improve forest governance in countries exporting tropical timber to the EU. Since illegal logging is just one driver of forest degradation, and legalisation of logging does not necessarily reduce deforestation and forest degradation, the two instruments differ in scope. However, by addressing the causes of forest degradation and their underlying governance issues, the FLEGT VPAs and REDD+ share many functional linkages at higher levels of forest policy and forest governance. The contribution and participation of civil society organisations (CSOs) and other actors are imperative to both processes. Our study is based on a survey of key actors (national and international) in REDD+ and FLEGT VPA processes in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Our analysis was guided by the theoretical perspectives of the policy arrangement approach and examination of two specific dimensions of this approach, namely resources and rules of the game. This paper argues that participation of CSOs in both processes is crucial because it facilitates and nurtures much needed cooperation between other national and international actors. The paper concludes that participation of CSOs could bring valuable information and knowledge into REDD+ and FLEGT VPA processes, thus contributing to increased legitimacy, justice and transparency. View Full-Text
Keywords: REDD+; FLEGT VPA; civil society organisations; participation; resources; rules of the  game; policy arrangement approach; Lao PDR REDD+; FLEGT VPA; civil society organisations; participation; resources; rules of the  game; policy arrangement approach; Lao PDR
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mustalahti, I.; Cramm, M.; Ramcilovic‐Suominen, S.; Tegegne, Y.T. Resources and Rules of the Game: Participation of Civil Society in REDD+ and FLEGT‐VPA Processes in Lao PDR. Forests 2017, 8, 50.

AMA Style

Mustalahti I, Cramm M, Ramcilovic‐Suominen S, Tegegne YT. Resources and Rules of the Game: Participation of Civil Society in REDD+ and FLEGT‐VPA Processes in Lao PDR. Forests. 2017; 8(2):50.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mustalahti, Irmeli; Cramm, Mathias; Ramcilovic‐Suominen, Sabaheta; Tegegne, Yitagesu T. 2017. "Resources and Rules of the Game: Participation of Civil Society in REDD+ and FLEGT‐VPA Processes in Lao PDR" Forests 8, no. 2: 50.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop