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Impacts of Global Change on Mediterranean Forests and Their Services

CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Unitat d’Ecologia Global CREAF-CSIC-UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain
CREAF, Center for Ecological and Forestry Applications, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
BEECA, Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Aquatic Ecology Group, University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia, Vic, 08500 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Museu de Ciències Naturals de Granollers, Francesc Macià, 51, 08402 Granollers, Catalonia, Spain
INRA, UMR ISPA, Interactions Sol Plante Atmosphère, 33882 Villenave d’ornon CEDEX, France
Forestry Economics and Forest Planning, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg, Tennenbacherstr. 4, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
Department of Scientific and Technological Research (DICTUS), Universidad de Sonora (Unison), 83000 Sonora, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2017, 8(12), 463;
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
The increase in aridity, mainly by decreases in precipitation but also by higher temperatures, is likely the main threat to the diversity and survival of Mediterranean forests. Changes in land use, including the abandonment of extensive crop activities, mainly in mountains and remote areas, and the increases in human settlements and demand for more resources with the resulting fragmentation of the landscape, hinder the establishment of appropriate management tools to protect Mediterranean forests and their provision of services and biodiversity. Experiments and observations indicate that if changes in climate, land use and other components of global change, such as pollution and overexploitation of resources, continue, the resilience of many forests will likely be exceeded, altering their structure and function and changing, mostly decreasing, their capacity to continue to provide their current services. A consistent assessment of the impacts of the changes, however, remains elusive due to the difficulty of obtaining simultaneous and complete data for all scales of the impacts in the same forests, areas and regions. We review the impacts of climate change and other components of global change and their interactions on the terrestrial forests of Mediterranean regions, with special attention to their impacts on ecosystem services. Management tools for counteracting the negative effects of global change on Mediterranean ecosystem- services are finally discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; drought; global change; mediterranean forests; ecosystem services; resilience; management; migration; extinction; diversity; communities; CO2; plant invasion climate change; drought; global change; mediterranean forests; ecosystem services; resilience; management; migration; extinction; diversity; communities; CO2; plant invasion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peñuelas, J.; Sardans, J.; Filella, I.; Estiarte, M.; Llusià, J.; Ogaya, R.; Carnicer, J.; Bartrons, M.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Grau, O.; Peguero, G.; Margalef, O.; Pla-Rabés, S.; Stefanescu, C.; Asensio, D.; Preece, C.; Liu, L.; Verger, A.; Barbeta, A.; Achotegui-Castells, A.; Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Sperlich, D.; Farré-Armengol, G.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Liu, D.; Zhang, C.; Urbina, I.; Camino-Serrano, M.; Vives-Ingla, M.; Stocker, B.D.; Balzarolo, M.; Guerrieri, R.; Peaucelle, M.; Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Bórnez-Mejías, K.; Mu, Z.; Descals, A.; Castellanos, A.; Terradas, J. Impacts of Global Change on Mediterranean Forests and Their Services. Forests 2017, 8, 463.

AMA Style

Peñuelas J, Sardans J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Llusià J, Ogaya R, Carnicer J, Bartrons M, Rivas-Ubach A, Grau O, Peguero G, Margalef O, Pla-Rabés S, Stefanescu C, Asensio D, Preece C, Liu L, Verger A, Barbeta A, Achotegui-Castells A, Gargallo-Garriga A, Sperlich D, Farré-Armengol G, Fernández-Martínez M, Liu D, Zhang C, Urbina I, Camino-Serrano M, Vives-Ingla M, Stocker BD, Balzarolo M, Guerrieri R, Peaucelle M, Marañón-Jiménez S, Bórnez-Mejías K, Mu Z, Descals A, Castellanos A, Terradas J. Impacts of Global Change on Mediterranean Forests and Their Services. Forests. 2017; 8(12):463.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Filella, Iolanda; Estiarte, Marc; Llusià, Joan; Ogaya, Romà; Carnicer, Jofre; Bartrons, Mireia; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Grau, Oriol; Peguero, Guille; Margalef, Olga; Pla-Rabés, Sergi; Stefanescu, Constantí; Asensio, Dolores; Preece, Catherine; Liu, Lei; Verger, Aleixandre; Barbeta, Adrià; Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sperlich, Dominik; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Fernández-Martínez, Marcos; Liu, Daijun; Zhang, Chao; Urbina, Ifigenia; Camino-Serrano, Marta; Vives-Ingla, Maria; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Balzarolo, Manuela; Guerrieri, Rossella; Peaucelle, Marc; Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Bórnez-Mejías, Kevin; Mu, Zhaobin; Descals, Adrià; Castellanos, Alejandro; Terradas, Jaume. 2017. "Impacts of Global Change on Mediterranean Forests and Their Services" Forests 8, no. 12: 463.

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