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Open AccessArticle

China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes?

1
College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
2
China National Forestry Economics and Development Research Center (FEDRC), Beijing 100714, China
3
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor 16115, Indonesia
4
Beijing Forestry University (BFU), Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2014, 5(9), 2345-2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5092345
Received: 2 February 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forests Program (CCFP) is the world’s largest afforestation-based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) program, having retired and afforested over 24 million ha involving 32 million rural households. Prior research has primarily focused on the CCFP’s rural welfare impacts, with few studies on program-induced environmental improvements, particularly at the household level. In this study, data from a 2010 survey covering 2808 rural households from across China was analyzed using an interval regression model to explain household-reported survival rates of trees planted on program-enrolled cropland. In addition to household-level factors, we explore the influence of local conditions and institutional configurations by exploiting the wide diversity of contexts covered by the data set. We find that households with more available labor and more forestry experience manage trees better, but that higher opportunity costs for both land and labor have the opposite effect. We also find that the local implementation regime- e.g., the degree of prior consultation with participants and regular monitoring - has a strong positive effect on reported survivorship. We suggest that the level of subsidy support to participating households will be key to survivorship of trees in planted CCFP forests for some time to come. View Full-Text
Keywords: China; CCFP; sloping land conversion program; grain for green; payments for ecosystem services; rural smallholders; institutions; afforestation; forest restoration; agriculture; tree survival China; CCFP; sloping land conversion program; grain for green; payments for ecosystem services; rural smallholders; institutions; afforestation; forest restoration; agriculture; tree survival
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bennett, M.T.; Xie, C.; Hogarth, N.J.; Peng, D.; Putzel, L. China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes? Forests 2014, 5, 2345-2376. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5092345

AMA Style

Bennett MT, Xie C, Hogarth NJ, Peng D, Putzel L. China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes? Forests. 2014; 5(9):2345-2376. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5092345

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bennett, Michael T.; Xie, Chen; Hogarth, Nicholas J.; Peng, Daoli; Putzel, Louis. 2014. "China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes?" Forests 5, no. 9: 2345-2376. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5092345

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