Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia
2. Analytical Framework
2.1. Types of Forested Landscapes and their Relevant Form of Restoration
2.2. Modes of Governance for Steering Landscape Decision-Making
2.3. Framework for Comparative Analysis of Cases
|Nature of a forested landscape and its restoration||Relevant modes of landscape governance||Relationship to the main design principles formulated by Sayer et al. |
|Ecological complex of different forest ecosystems needing restoration of ecological services||Landscape governance as a management tool||• Importance of common concern entry points as formulated in sectorial regulations and guidelines;|
|• Strengthened stakeholder capacity for implementing professional norms|
|Socio-geographical space of complex mosaic land use requiring restoration of both conservation and productive functions||Landscape governance as a multi-stakeholder decision-making process||• Importance of common concern entry points deriving from multi-stakeholder negotiation process|
|• Multi-stakeholder involvement for better coordination and planning|
|• Negotiated and transparent change logic|
|• Clarification of rights and responsibilities|
|Socio-geographical space, stretching over administrative boundaries and jurisdictions requiring restoration of both conservation and productive functions||Landscape governance as the creation of new institutional space for spatial decision making.||• multi-stakeholder involvement for joint decision making|
|• multi-scale linkages for effective institutional embeddedness at scale|
|• “Navigating complexity” through adaptation and continual learning|
3. Research Background and Methodology
3.1. Research Methodology
3.2. Historical Background
3.3. Description of the Case Studies
4. The Results: Governing Forest Landscape Restoration in Indonesia
4.1. What Form of Forest Landscape Restoration Has Been at Stake?
4.2. How Was the Governance Process Initially Designed, and How Did it Change over Time?
4.3. Overall Comparison
|Case study||Original restoration approach||Mode of governance||Evolution in governance approach|
|Halimun-Salak||Restoration of an area degraded due to agricultural expansion. Restoration of an ecological corridor to restore ecological integrity and species mobility||Landscape governance as a management tool: plans are designed and implemented by Park Authorities; stakeholder involvement merely seen as a conflict management tool||Initially not participatory and highly directive. However, focus changed to more stakeholder involvement to mitigate conflict. Multiple resource use negotiated and accepted, yet not legalised. Institutional space claimed by local inhabitants with NGO support, but not institutionalised. Main funder: government. Additional funding provided by private sector|
|East Kutai (KPC)||Restoration of former mining sites, emphasis on restoring the original forest cover||landscape governance as a multi-stakeholder decision-making process: within the formal government regulations on restoration there is room for multi-stakeholder dialogue, which has led to more creative multifunctional restoration practice (agriculture, livestock, tourism)||Initially focused on implementation of government regulation, but later on turned into an instrument for participatory spatial planning. Institutional space created for multiple land use. Institutional space created by the company, in agreement with a majority of local stakeholders, yet not formalised or institutionalised in formal planning mechanisms of the government. Main funding: private sector|
|Sungai Wain||Restoration of fire damage. Emphasis on ecological restoration, provision of clean water and cultural identity||Landscape governance as the creation of new institutional space for spatial decision making: collective action and strong multi-stakeholder collaboration has led to new space for decision making, institutionalised in local government authorities||Integrated and multi-stakeholder approach from the onset; stakeholder involvement as instrument for joint planning; institutional space for multi-stakeholder dialogue created, and formally embedded in local government and its planning mechanism, however poorly embedded in national politics. Main funding: initially civil society and international donors. Later on: municipal government, with substantial co-funding from industries operating in the area|
Conflicts of Interest
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Van Oosten, C.; Gunarso, P.; Koesoetjahjo, I.; Wiersum, F. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia. Forests 2014, 5, 1143-1162. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5061143
Van Oosten C, Gunarso P, Koesoetjahjo I, Wiersum F. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia. Forests. 2014; 5(6):1143-1162. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5061143Chicago/Turabian Style
Van Oosten, Cora, Petrus Gunarso, Irene Koesoetjahjo, and Freerk Wiersum. 2014. "Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia" Forests 5, no. 6: 1143-1162. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5061143