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Non-Native Forest Tree Species in Europe: The Question of Seed Origin in Afforestation

School of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
INRAE Centre Val de Loire–UMR BioForA, INRAE, 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin, CS 40001 Ardon, CEDEX 2, 45075 Orleans, France
Department of Forest Growth, Silviculture and Genetics, Austrian Federal Research Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, A-1131 Vienna, Austria
Department of Silviculture and Forest Tree Genetics, Forest Research Institute, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
Skogforsk-Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, 2250 Ekebo, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden
Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Silviculture, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Peter-Jordan-Straβe 82, 1190 Vienna, Austria
Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Bavarian Institute for Forest Genetics, 83317 Teisendorf, Germany
Faculty of Forest Sciences, Landscape Architecture and Environmental Engineering, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, P.O. Box 235, Skopje 1000, North Macedonia
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department for Forest Genetics and Afforestration/Reforestation, University of Banja Luka, 78000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Division for Silviculture, Croatian Forest Research Institute, 10450 Jastrebarsko, Croatia
Department of Agroforestry Sciences, School of Engineering, ETSI, Campus de El Carmen, Huelva University, 21071 Huelva, Spain
Department of Forest Tree Species Biology and Breeding, Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, 252 02 Jíloviště, Czech Republic
Forest Research Institute, 4150 Püspokladany, Hungary
Plant Biology and Biodiversity Center, Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 950 07 Nitra, Slovakia
Department of Silviculture, Ukrainian National Forestry University, 79057 Lviv, Ukraine
Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 95Y, UK
‘Marin Dracea’ National Institute for Reserach and Development in Forestry, 077190 Voluntari, Romania
CREA Research Centre for Forestry and Wood, 52100 Arezzo, Italy
Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski Blvd, 1797 Sofia, Bulgaria
Forest Research Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, Antona Čehova 13d, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dušan Gömöry
Forests 2022, 13(2), 273;
Received: 5 January 2022 / Revised: 1 February 2022 / Accepted: 3 February 2022 / Published: 8 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Introduced Forest Tree Species and Their Genetic Diversity)
Non-native forest tree species have been introduced in Europe since the 16th century, but only in the second half of the 20th century the significance of the seed source origin for their economic use was recognized, resulting in the establishment of numerous provenance trials at a national, regional, European and International level, as those led by IUFRO. Breeding programs have also been launched in the continent for the most economically important species. Aim of this work is the formulation of provenance recommendations for planting of five non-native tree species in Europe (Douglas fir, grand fir, Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine and black locust), based on the information obtained from twenty countries, in the frame of the EU FP-1403 NNEXT Cost Action. The survey revealed that official and non-official national recommendations, based on provenance research results, have been elaborated and followed at a different level and extend for the above five species, but only for Douglas fir recommendations exist in almost all the participating to the survey countries. The compilation of provenance recommendations across Europe for each species is presented in the current work. Besides the recommended introduced seed sources, European seed sources are also preferred for planting, due to ease of access and high availability of forest reproductive material. European breeding programs yielding genetic material of high productivity and quality constitute currently the seed source of choice for several species and countries. Consolidation of trial data obtained across countries will allow the joint analysis that is urgently needed to draw solid conclusions, and will facilitate the development of ‘Universal-Response-Functions’ for the species of interest, rendering possible the identification of the genetic material suitable for global change. New provenance trial series that will test seed sources from the entire climatic range of the species, established in sites falling within and outside the environmental envelopes of their natural ranges, are urgently needed to pinpoint and understand the species-specific climate constraints, as well as to correlate functional traits to the seed origin and the environmental conditions of the test sites, so that the selection of suitable forest reproductive material of non-native tree species in the face of climate change can be feasible. View Full-Text
Keywords: provenance recommendations; provenance testing; breeding programs; adaptation; exotic tree species; Douglas fir; Sitka spruce; grand fir; lodgepole pine; black locust provenance recommendations; provenance testing; breeding programs; adaptation; exotic tree species; Douglas fir; Sitka spruce; grand fir; lodgepole pine; black locust
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alizoti, P.; Bastien, J.-C.; Chakraborty, D.; Klisz, M.M.; Kroon, J.; Neophytou, C.; Schueler, S.; Loo, M.v.; Westergren, M.; Konnert, M.; Andonovski, V.; Andreassen, K.; Brang, P.; Brus, R.; Cvjetković, B.; Đodan, M.; Fernández, M.; Frýdl, J.; Karlsson, B.; Keserű, Z.; Kormutak, A.; Lavnyy, V.; Maaten, T.; Mason, B.; Mihai, G.; Monteverdi, C.; Perić, S.; Petkova, K.; Popov, E.B.; Rousi, M.; Stojnić, S.M.; Tsvetkov, I. Non-Native Forest Tree Species in Europe: The Question of Seed Origin in Afforestation. Forests 2022, 13, 273.

AMA Style

Alizoti P, Bastien J-C, Chakraborty D, Klisz MM, Kroon J, Neophytou C, Schueler S, Loo Mv, Westergren M, Konnert M, Andonovski V, Andreassen K, Brang P, Brus R, Cvjetković B, Đodan M, Fernández M, Frýdl J, Karlsson B, Keserű Z, Kormutak A, Lavnyy V, Maaten T, Mason B, Mihai G, Monteverdi C, Perić S, Petkova K, Popov EB, Rousi M, Stojnić SM, Tsvetkov I. Non-Native Forest Tree Species in Europe: The Question of Seed Origin in Afforestation. Forests. 2022; 13(2):273.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alizoti, Paraskevi, Jean-Charles Bastien, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Marcin Miroslav Klisz, Johan Kroon, Charalambos Neophytou, Silvio Schueler, Marcela van Loo, Marjana Westergren, Monika Konnert, Vlatko Andonovski, Kjell Andreassen, Peter Brang, Robert Brus, Branislav Cvjetković, Martina Đodan, Manuel Fernández, Josef Frýdl, Bo Karlsson, Zsolt Keserű, Andrej Kormutak, Vasyl Lavnyy, Tiit Maaten, Bill Mason, Georgeta Mihai, Cristina Monteverdi, Sanja Perić, Krasimira Petkova, Emil Borissov Popov, Matti Rousi, Srđan Milenko Stojnić, and Ivaylo Tsvetkov. 2022. "Non-Native Forest Tree Species in Europe: The Question of Seed Origin in Afforestation" Forests 13, no. 2: 273.

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