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Understanding Species Diversity, Phenology and Environmental Implications of Different Life Forms in Coniferous Forests: A Case Study from Bhallesa Hills of Pir Panjal Mountain, Western Himalaya, India

Plant Sciences and Agrotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu 180001, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Botanical Garden Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Agraria, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito snc, 89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and are first authors.
Forests 2022, 13(12), 2050;
Received: 31 October 2022 / Revised: 26 November 2022 / Accepted: 26 November 2022 / Published: 2 December 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Biodiversity)


We assessed, for the first time, the plant assemblages in coniferous forests of temperate and alpine ecosystems of the Himalayas to understand the diversity of species and their phenological behaviours that lead to different growth forms in the climax forest community. In this study, we selected the coniferous forests of Bhallesa Hills, situated in Pir Panjal Mountain (Jammu and Kashmir) of the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot as a study area and used the quadrat method to document the floristic diversity over four years (2018–2021). The study sites were divided into four sub-sites (Chilli, Kahal, Chanwari, Gandoh), and at each site, 25 replicated plots (each measuring 2500 m2, 50 × 50 m2) were established for repeated surveys and documentation. We then analysed species diversity, lifeforms, phenology and leaf size spectra of coniferous plant communities. We consulted various pieces of literature to understand native and non-native plants. The results showed that the species diversity and species richness, growth forms and phenology varied in the experimental plots. In total, we found 328 plant species belonging to 228 genera and 78 families from different localities of various growth forms. Approximately 68.51% of the plant species were native, and 31.49%of the species were non-native. In angiosperms, dicotyledon species were found to be dominant, with 83.23% of the total plant species, while the family Asteraceae was common, with 38 species. The biological spectrum analysis showed 29% of the species were chamaephytes, followed by 28% as therophytes and 21% as phanerophytes. We observed that plant communities respond differently to the existing environment drivers, with chamaephyte and therophytes being more tightly linked to temperate mixed-coniferous and alpine ecosystems, affected by climates and the availability of substrates for their growth and existence. The leaf size spectra analyses showed nanophyll (42.81%) as the dominant group. Conservation-prioritised species (IUCN, regional most threatened species in India), such as Taxus wallichiana Zucc., Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don, Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle and Euphorbia obovata Decne were found to be the most endangered plants. The results indicated more indigenous species, but there is a slow process of depletion of wild species, leading to colonisation by exotic alien species. This study indicated forests of the Himalayan regions are degrading at a faster rate, species are showing a shift in phenological behaviour due to anthropogenic factors leading to climate change, and indigenous species need conservation measures.

1. Introduction

A rapid decline in plant diversity, mainly due to human involvement, is considered a major driver of changes in the ecosystem [1,2,3]. The high plant diversity promotes ecosystem multifunctionality, ensures the sustainability of the rangeland, and provides various services to mankind, as supported by comprehensive experimental studies [4,5]. Therefore, gathering reliable information on species diversity is needed to help wildlife managers properly plan and formulate efficient conservation actions [6,7]. Natural forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services and are considered a critical habitat for biodiversity [8] as this accounts for the ecological structure, functions and processes in forest ecosystems [9]. Aside from providing food, medicine, fuel and other necessities to billions of people, forests also support water-flow regulation and carbon storage and provide services such as habitat preservation, pollution control and soil protection [10]. Knowledge of plant species diversity, composition and viability is essential to achieving more efficient forest preservation and conservation via policymaking and management [11,12]. Technical exploration and inventorisation of biodiversity provide important data for studying aspects of conservation and sustainable use [13,14,15] and also help in monitoring changes in plant communities over time [16,17,18]. Plant communities and their structure can be assessed and explored through field sampling and then by arranging the species into various categories that reflect their dependency and relationship with the existing environmental parameters [19,20,21]. However, these studies can be costly and time-consuming and depend on the total area chosen for study. Therefore, efficient methodologies and tools that estimate and assess species diversity are needed [9,22]. For this, one parameter considered is the plant communities categorised based on leaf form and leaf size spectra [23,24]. An investigation of the biological spectrum (BS) and floristic composition is considered an important study in comparing the geographical separation of different plant communities and is also used as an indicator to investigate environmental changes over time [12,25]. The BS is also considered an indicator of the prevailing conditions of the environment favouring the growth of plant species and environmental stress, if any, faced by the residing species in that particular environment [26]. The phenological attributes, such as life forms (LFs), leaf spectra (LS) and other phenotypic features, reflect the existing ecological conditions, microclimate and evolutionary processes that help in understanding the pattern of species’ lifecycles [27,28,29,30]. Thus, it can be used for assessing the ecological health of the given ecosystem [31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38]. Raunkiaer’s normal spectrum shows a phanerophytic community, and the deviation from the normal spectrum determines the phytoclimatic nature of the vegetation of an ecological habitat [39]. The difference between Raunkiaer’s normal spectrum and the biological spectrum of life forms helps to determine the dominant life forms that characterise the phytoclimate of a given ecosystem [40]. Therefore, the study of BS is one of the important factors in ecological studies and the description of vegetation rankings next to floristic composition and biodiversity surveys [41,42].
Approximately 3% of the world’s surface has a high mountainous region [42,43], and most of the species’ diversity is concentrated in the hills and valleys [44]. Mountainous environments provide a home to various endemic, rare and threatened species [45,46], but in the recent past, climate change and land use patterns have played critical roles in species threats with respect to the exploitation of this natural heritage in most parts of the globe [47,48,49,50]. This is one of the main reasons for attracting more research activities in the mountains, including botanisation and registering the collection of plant species of great value [51]. In particular, coniferous forests have great importance worldwide, both from an ecological point of view and in the face of climate change [52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59]. The Indian Himalayas are one of the mountainous belts rich in both biological and cultural diversity [60,61]. It covers a 70,074.54 km2 area, distributed as tropical, subtropical, temperate, sub-alpine and alpine ecosystems enriched with 50% of Indian species [62,63]. Interestingly, plant communities of the Himalayas have been a major attraction for research since ancient times [64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91], but still, many interior regions in the Himalayas are found to be unexplored, which needs botanical investigation and proper documentation.
The Bhallesa Hills are considered a part of the Pir Panjal mountain range, situated in the district of Doda in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (J and K), and is one of the unexplored belts of the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. This belt of Himalayas is bestowed with a typical mountainous climate, the beauty of lofty mountains and unique vegetation, attracting botanists and forest department planners in the recent few years for the study of natural resources. With this research, we have attempted, for the first time, to investigate the biological spectrum and floristic composition of Bhallesa Hills. We reveal that the data on the phytoclimate variables and floristic composition of this region can transmit a lot of knowledge to mankind and fill the gap of one of the unexplored belts of the Himalayas. We hypothesised that climate change in the current scenario might decrease ecosystem functioning and lead to a loss of plant diversity. In this research, we specifically tried to address the current state of knowledge and research gaps on floristic diversity and the threatened species in the absence of any such previous attempts for Jammu and Kashmir. The major aim of this study was to assess the plant assemblages in the Himalayas coniferous forests of temperate and alpine ecosystems and understand species diversity and their phenological behaviours leading to different lifeforms. In this study, we selected the coniferous forests of Bhallesa Hills and then analysed the species’ diversity, lifeforms, phenology and leaf size spectra of coniferous plants. Key questions, such as (a) how diverse are the life forms of plants from different altitudinal gradients in coniferous forests of the temperate and alpine climate of the Himalayas, and how are they distributed in a drastic cold climate? (b) What are the key drivers controlling the population of different plant community compositions? (c) Do species of plants of special interest (from a conservation point of view) occur in the studied forest regions? Based on the results, we have attempted to discuss the species diversity, species richness, growth forms, phenology and species of conservation importance.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

Plant species were sampled from the Bhallesa Hills, having typical Himalayan temperate mixed-coniferous and alpine forests, which come under the Pir Panjal mountainous belts of Kashmir Himalaya. This study site lies between the latitude of 32°54′ to 33°05′ N and a longitude of 75°55′ to 75°51′ E (Figure 1). The altitude varies from 1500 to 4500 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.), having an area of approximately 950 km2. The Kalguni river originates from Bhallesa Hills and serves as a lifeline for the local inhabitants residing in the lower valleys of the study area. Due to the less connectivity to towns and the lack of modern health facilities, the people mostly rely on this river and the available forest resources for their livelihood. According to the 2011 Indian Census, the total population of the Bhallesa region recorded was 71,889 people, with a density of 94 people per km2. The population of males was 36,754 persons, whereas the number of females was 35,135 persons. The difference in the altitudinal gradients leads to species variations coupled with climate change and nutrient resources. However, the temperate climate prevails in the lower regions of the Bhallesa belts, whereas the upper reaches enjoy a cold alpine climate. During the investigation (2018–2021), the maximum temperature recorded was 31.5 °C in June, and the minimum temperature was 7.8 °C in January. The forest vegetation composition leading to plant species diversity varies depending on the altitude. In the lower regions, plant communities are characterised by temperate mixed forest species, such as Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook., Fraxinus excelsior L., Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis and Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jacks. As the altitudinal gradient increases, the typical Himalayan coniferous tree species, such as Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don, Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss., Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle and Betula utilis D.Don dominates the forests. The sub-alpine and alpine meadows were represented by typical high-altitude Himalayan bushy shrubs and hardy herbaceous species of the genera Berberis L., Androsace L., Anemone L., Gentiana Tourn ex L., Impatiens Riv. ex L. and Primula L.; species, such as Jaeschkea oligosperma Knobl., Cynoglossum wallichii G.Don, Codonopsis ovata Benth., Salvia hians Royle ex Benth. Morina longifolia Wall. ex DC. and Thermopsis barbata Benth. were the other dominant species found in the herbaceous community. No tree species were recorded at the alpine belts; however, few open pockets were recorded to have a stagnant growth of Juniperus recurva Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don., Juniperus communis L. and Syringa emodi Wall. ex Royle. The upper regions of the study area, with more than 2000 m amsl, experience heavy snowfall from December to February; the alpine zones remain covered with snow for about six months, whereas the lower reaches (<2000 m a.m.s.l.) receive snowfall for about one month. For the past few decades, annual rainfall has been recorded to be very little and varies from 920 to 940 mm. The physiographic factors (relief, slope, altitude) are strikingly apparent in the soil formation in the Bhallesa Hills and other mountainous regions of the Western Himalayas.
The soils, in general, were recorded to be shallow, mostly skeletal, coarse-textured, calcareous and strongly alkaline in nature. The soil scape of the lower reaches is represented by cryorthents and cryorthids and is shallow, coarse-textured and low in organic matter. The low to medium organic carbon contents recorded and their variations usually occur with the change in altitude, land use and geology of the study area.

2.2. Data Collection

2.2.1. Plant Surveys, Collection and Identification

For inventorying different plant species (higher plants), twenty-four field exploration surveys were carried out from 2018 to 2021 in different growing seasons in the Bhallesa region of the Pir Panjal mountain range. At the onset, the study area was divided into four sub-sites (Chilli, Kahal, Chanwariand Gandoh), and at each site, 25 replicated plots (each measuring 2500 m2, 50 × 50 m2) were established and further divided into plots of 10 × 10 m for convenience. In order to reduce the effects of spatial autocorrelation, the least distance between the plot ranges was maintained between 500 and 100 m, depending on the geography of the site chosen for surveying and studying. Altogether, 100 plots measuring 250,000 m2 (or 250 km2), randomly placed quadrats, were studied to document the entire floristic wealth of Bhallesa. The unapproachable sites and tough mountainous terrains were excluded from laying the quadrat study. The multiple surveys were carried out to account for plant species-specific variations with timing and the duration of fruiting [92] within each sampling plot between 2018 and 2021. Each selected plot was visited six times per year in February, April, June, July, September and November (totalling 24 field tours, covering 119 days).
We inventoried and collected the plant samples categorised as angiosperms, gymnosperms, lycophytes and ferns from four sub-sites located in the study area. The lower groups of plant species belonging to lichens, fungi, algae, bryophytes, etc., were excluded from this study. We focused on collecting the maximum number of species with flowers and fruits from the study area. All the samples collected were first dried and then pressed and processed according to the standard operating procedure of Jain and Rao [93]. Digital photographs, along with the GPS (Manufacturer: Garmin, Country: China) coordinates of all the specimens collected, were taken from the study area. All plant samples were collected in triplicate, and the herbarium sheets (42 × 28 cm) were prepared as per the standard protocols. Most species were identified on-site, and to confirm field identification and for those specimens whose identification was not possible on-site, specimens were taken to the laboratory and identified from the housed specimens at Janaki Ammal Herbarium (JAH) (acronym RRLH). The herbarium acronym is according to Janaki Ammal Herbarium [94]. The microscopic works were undertaken using a light microscope (Olympus Bx 53). The identity of the collected taxa was determined using published regional flora texts, such as Flora of Udhampur [95], Flora of Jammu and Plants of Neighbourhood [96], Flora of Trikuta Hills [97] and Illustration of Jammu Plants [98], consulting various monographs, recent research papers and books. Finally, the legitimate scientific names were verified using the World Checklist of Vascular Plants (, accessed on 1 December 2021). The representative vouchers of all taxa were accessioned and deposited in the JAH of CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine Jammu (J and K, India).

2.2.2. Presentation of Data

In order to investigate the community structure and vegetation composition, the plant specimens were collected from the study area and identified based on their morphological characteristics. During the field surveys, the observations on field characteristics of plants, such as growth form, habitat, ecology, habit, leaf size and lifeforms (Raunkiaer’s life form), were focused on and recorded. The distribution of the flowering period of the collected plant samples was included in the study. The extent of the growth form is determined by the direction of the growth of the plant’s main axis, categorised into trees, shrubs and herbs [99]. The life forms that were determined by the place of location of the penetrating bud during the favourable season (14) were sub-categorised as geophyte (GE), therophyte (TH), phanerophyte (PH), chamaephyte (CH), hemicryptophyte (HC), liana (L) and epiphyte (Ep). The phanerophyte group of plant communities were again sub-divided into megaphanerophytes (mgPH), mesophanerophytes (msPH), microphanerophytes (mcPH) and nanophanerophytes (nnPH). Investigating the size of the leaves with morphological observations provides a better understanding of studying the climate and the floristic gradients of a given ecosystem [100]. Therefore, the plant species of the study area were investigated based on leaf size and categorised as megaphyll (MG), leptophyll (LP), mesophyll (ME), nanophyll (NP) and microphyll (MI). The angiosperm families were classified and arranged under genera based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV classification [101]. Other plant groups, such as the gymnosperm, lycophyte and fern, were placed after the flowering plants. The threatened status of each taxon in the study area was cross-checked with the website of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (, accessed on 1 December 2021): NE stands for Not Evaluated, Data Deficient as DD, Least Concern (LC), Neat Threatened (NT), Vulnerable (VU), Endangered (EN), Critically Endangered (CR) and EW as Extinct in the Wild.

2.3. Data Analysis

The total species richness of the study area was recorded as the cumulative number of plant species present in 100 plots of four sub-sites of the study area during four consecutive years of investigation. The density, frequency and basal cover of each species within each plot were measured according to Misra [102]. The mean species richness was estimated by averaging the number of plant species (higher plants) recorded in 100 plots. The frequency of individual plant species was defined as the number of plots on which the given species was recorded (maximum 100 for all plots or 25 for individual sub-sites). The relative values were summed up to obtain the importance value index (IVI). The plant species diversity was calculated using the Shannon–Wiener function (H′) as
H = i = 1 n ( ni N × ln ni N )
where ni indicates the number of individuals of a given species; i and N are the total number of individuals [103].
The Simpson index of diversity (D) was calculated following Magurran [104] as
D = i = 1 n ( ni N ) 2
The distributional behaviour of the species was calculated using Pielou’s evenness index [105] as
J = H ln ( S )
where S = the total number of species.
The PAST 4.10 statistical analysis software was used to analyse the diversity results easily.

2.4. Literature Sources

The identification of the collected plant specimens was confirmed from earlier scientific studies published in floras, books, revisionary works, journals and monographs, available in the CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM), CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) and the University of Jammu libraries. All the plant species were botanically compared with the help of the texts Flora of Udhampur [95], Flora of Jammu and Plants of Neighbourhood [96], Flora of TrikutaHills [97], Illustration of Jammu Plants [98], and Flowers of the Himalayas [106]. APG IV was used for the classification of the flowering plants, and the species’ names were verified using the POWO (available at, accessed on 12 July 2022), World Checklist of Vascular Plants (available at, accessed on 13 July 2022), International Plant Names Index (available at http://, accessed on 13 July 2022), and Tropicos (available at, accessed on 14 July 2022). For the phenological studies, the collected specimens were categorised according to their flowering seasons as summer (April–June), rainy (July–September), winter (October–December) and spring (January–March). The flowering season of the collected specimens was recorded in the field surveys at different locations in the study area.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Floristic Composition and Diversity of Species and Families

In this study, we collected 328 plant taxa samples belonging to 228 genera that were distributed in 78 families under 35 orders (Table 1). Out of the collected samples, 83.23% of species were dicots, followed by monocots at 11.89%, lycophytes and ferns at 2.74% and gymnosperms at 2.13%. The dominant orders included Lamiales with 41 genera (11.01%), Asterales and Rosales with 23 genera (10.13% each), Poales with 19 genera (8.37%), Caryophyllales with 16 genera (7.04%), Ranunculales with 15 genera (6.60%) and Saxifragales with 7 genera (4.80%). All the flowering plants were arranged according to the APG IV system of classification [101], followed by gymnosperms, lycophytes and ferns.
The ten dominant families, with respect to the species richness recorded from the area, are Asteraceae (34), Lamiaceae (21), Rosaceae (21), Poaceae (20), Ranunculaceae (18), Polygonaceae (14), Apiaceae (10), Brassicaceae (10), Plantaginaceae (9) and Fabaceae (8). A total of 28 monotypic families with single species were found in the study area, where 3 families were recorded as having 5 species, 9 families with 4 species, 13 families with 3 species and 9 families with 2 species were collected from the study area. These research studies show a similar pattern of work carried out by Dar and Khuroo [80] in the Kashmir Himalayan region and found Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Polygonaceae as the most important and dominant families. Similar studies conducted by Chawla et al. [81] reported Poaceae and Asteraceae as the dominant families in the Bhabha valley of the Western Himalayas. In another similar work carried out by Sharma et al. [107], in the Sangla valley of Northwestern Himalaya, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae and Ranunculaceae were reported as the dominant families. Other studies published by Bhat et al. [87], Agrawal [108], Shaheen et al. [109] and Haq et al. [110] also show and support this research finding carried out in the Bhallesa regions of the Himalayas.
As a general observation, the species richness varies depending on the site selected for a research study. The results show that the number of species varies from 173 (Kahal plots) to 197 (Gandoh plots). We found great variation in the basal area of tree species, which varies from 44.16 ± 14.29 m2 ha−1 (Gandoh plots) to 144.52 ± 29.60 m2 ha−1 (Chilli plots). The density of tree species also varies from 136 (Kahal plots) to 240 plants ha−1 (Chilli plots). The highest density of the shrub community was recorded at Chilli (1056 ha−1), whereas the lowest was found at 656 plants ha−1 in Gandoh. In the herb community, the density was found to be highest at Chanwari (206,000 plants ha−1), whereas the lowest density was recorded at the Gandoh site (146,400 plants ha−1) (Table 2). The results showed that the species richness (S) did not reveal any significant (p > 0.05) changes. The results of the diversity measures (H’: Shannon–Wiener index; D: Simpson index of diversity; J: Pielou’s evenness index) across plots are provided in Table 2. The highest H’ is recorded at 2.78 ± 0.41 for the trees and shrubs (H’ = 2.92 ± 0.77) at the Gandoh site, whereas Chilliwas recorded to have the highest H’: 4.77 for herbs. The highest Simpson index of diversity (D) was recorded for the trees (D = 0.91 ± 0.28) and shrubs (0.94 ± 0.33) at the Gandoh site. The Chilli site recorded the highest Simpson index for herbs (0.99). The highest Pielou’s evenness index (J) was recorded at the Chanwari site for trees (0.83 ± 0.04), followed by Gandoh (0.71 ± 0.11), Kahal (0.64 ± 0.04) and Chilli (0.54 ± 0.08). The details are provided in Table 2. The plant species having the highest importance value index (IVI) varies location-wise. Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jacks., Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don, Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss, Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle, Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis, Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook., Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Juglans regia L. were the plant species with the highest IVIs in the study area. The lowest IVIs were recorded for Corylus colurna L. (IVI=4.93), followed by Crataegus songarica K.Koch (5.18), Morus alba L. (5.60), Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob. (5.69) and Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. (5.82) (Table 3). The IVI varies for Pinus wallichiana(IVI = 58.72 to 107.42), Cedrus deodara (34.53 to 69.11), and Picea smithiana (21.98 to 36.04) in the study area. The soil depth, high moisture retention capacity and relatively high temperatures are all factors that contribute to the high diversity of ecosystems. In a recent study undertaken by Wen et al. [111], in the alpine meadows of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China, proven ecosystems in the high-altitude regions are more sensitive, ecologically fragile and respond more rapidly than any other ecosystems to global climate warming. The results showed that short-term warming increases the air temperature by 0.31 °C and decreases relative humidity by 2.54%, which leads to a decrease in the importance value of grasses by 47.56% and sedges by 3.67%. In this study, it is reported that the species diversity indices increased at the early stage of warming and decreased at the late stage of warming, but none of them reached significant levels (p > 0.05), and also, the species diversity had no significant correlation with the soil temperature and soil moisture under both short-term and long-term warming. Many earlier botanists and ecologists carried out similar research studies in the different pockets of the Western Himalayas at different periods. Some renowned works showing similar findings include Malik and Bhatt [112], Tiwari et al. [113] and Haq et al. [114].

3.2. Species Diversity in Different Growth Forms

Of the total number of the collected species, 256 (78.28%) of the species were herbs, followed by shrubs (44 sp., 13.45%), and 27 species (8.25%) of plants represent trees. Our study reveals that the trees and shrub community decrease with the increase in altitude, and the herb species follow a reverse trend because they increase as the altitude increases. Herbs show the most advanced and successful growth forms as they easily adapt to a wide range of habitats.
Out of the total collected specimens, 271 (82.87%) are dicots, 40 (12.32%) are monocots, 9 (2.75%) are lycophytes and ferns, and 7 (2.14%) are gymnosperms. In this study, 51 species (15.59%) represent an annual life span. The most common annuals collected from the study area were: Arabis alpina L., Digitalis purpurea L., Draba nuda (Bel.) Al-Shehbaz & M. Koch, Impatiens balfourii Hook.f., Mazus pumilus (Burm.f.) Steenis, Galinsoga parviflora Cav., etc. A total of 276 plant taxa were found to be perennial, comprising 84.40% of the total flora collected from the study area. The perennial plants were mostly shrubs and trees. The majority of trees and shrubs growing in the study area are evergreen coniferous species, such as Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Piceasmithiana. Deciduous plants, such as the Acer caesium, Aesculus indica, Celtis australis L., Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC. and Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne.) Rehder, are also frequent in the study area. Data on the life-span findings from the study area was found similar to that of Subramani et al. [115], in which the research on life-span studies was carried out in the Northwestern Himalayas. Torresani et al. [22] estimated tree species diversity from space in an alpine conifer forest and attempted to test the spectral variation hypothesis (SVH). The results of this study showed that the spectral variation in species is season and sensor-dependent, and the coefficient of variations depends on the temporal tendency of the species. Other research findings by Saha [116] on the dominant lifeforms in the Darjeeling regions of the Northeastern Himalayas show a similar pattern to our findings. Rawat and Adhikari [117] studied the Changthang plateau of the Ladakh region for altitudinal gradients showing similar patterns to these findings, and the results correlate with the already existing research study. Other similar research includes Namgail et al. [118] and Pharswan and Mehta [119] in the Western Himalayas. Nautiyal et al. [120] conducted studies in the Tungnath area of the Kumaon Himalaya that show a similar pattern to the research findings in our study of the Bhallesa region. In these research findings, the angiosperms species, their diversity and growth forms in the Bhallesa Hills were the most dominant in the lower altitudes, whereas the members of the gymnosperm show their presence in the higher regions of the study area. Earlier research findings, such as Mir et al. [121] in the Kashmir Himalayas and Dogra et al. [122], studied plant diversity in the Western Himalayas in Himachal Pradesh with similar types of elevation and climate, and these studies also support our research findings from Bhallesaof Pir Panjal Mountain.
Another study by Gaston et al. [123], carried out in the Western Himalayas, also shows a similar pattern to our research and also proves that the destruction of habitat and hunting threatens temperate forest resources. Another research study by Gairola et al. [124] shows floristic analyses in the Western Himalayas of the Gharwal division of Uttarakhand and reported similar outcomes to our research findings.

3.3. Life Forms and Biological Spectrum

The biological spectra of Bhallesa Hills show chamaephytes as the most dominant group, representing a total of 27.74% (91 taxa), followed by therophytes having 82 taxa (25%), 65 phanerophytes (19.82%), 46 hemicryptophytes (14.02%) and 37 geophytes (11.28%) (Figure 2). Lianas (6 taxa, 1.83%) and epiphytes (1 taxon, 0.3%) represent the lowest life forms of coniferous forests of the Bhallesa region. Among the phanerophytes, the nanophanerophytes (nnPH), represented by 19 taxa (29.23%), were more dominant than the megaphanerophytes (mgPH) comprising 18 taxa (27.69%), microphanerophytes (mcPH) comprising 17 taxa (26.15%) and mesophanerophytes (msPH) with 11 taxa (16.92%) (Figure 3, Table 4). The chamaephytes, followed by the therophytes growing in the Bhallesa regions, show a maximal divergence from Raunkiaer’s normal spectra. An increase in the number of phanerophytes and therophytes shows that the community has a warmer climate [125,126], whereas the chameophytes and hemicryptophytes were confined to the cold regions. The biotic and abiotic disturbances in a particular area tend to increase the number of therophytes in the area. A study carried out by Deljouei et al. [127] in the temperate hornbeam-beech forests of Northern Iran recorded hemicryptophytes (54.8%) as the dominant biological spectrum group, followed by the cryptophytes (25.8%), therophytes (11.3%), phanerophytes (4.8%), and chamaephytes (3.3%). Furthermore, the diversity index of different species decreases when the distance of disturbance increases; this decreasing trend continued up to 60m from the forest road margin, and after this threshold, the index slightly increased.
Similar studies by Cain [128], Daubenmire [129], Vashistha et al. [130], and Saxena et al. [131] also reported a decrease in woody flora in the higher altitudes with an increase in the percentage of cryptophytes and hemicryptophytes. In our study, the correlation between altitude and lifeforms was carried out, and we found that the phanerophytes decrease with increasing altitude. Thus, the low temperature at high altitudes is a controlling factor for the growth of phanerophytes and therophytes. Our study revealed that the chamaephytes with geophytes and hemicryptophytes were found at higher altitudes, and the phanerophytes and therophytes were confined to the lower heights in the study area. Similar research studies were conducted by Saxena et al. [131] on the lifeforms at high altitudes in the Kumaon Himalayan regions; Singh and Bedi [132] studied similar research in different regions of the Western Himalayas, supporting our research findings. Regarding the research study by Das et al. [133] in different pockets of the Western Himalayas, we found similar results by comparing our research findings. During the field study, we found the population of many plant taxa was decreasing and were at risk of extinction; therefore, we feel that interactions and support with the local people and the forest department of the area should take proper management steps to protect the declining plant species and the vegetation composition of the Bhallesa region.
Workers such as Dobhal et al. [134] conducted comparable experiments in the Western Himalayas and found similar types of biological spectra in similar environmental conditions. According to their findings, therophytes were dominant, which is similar to our observations. Ghildiyal and Meenakshi [135] carried out similar studies in a similar region of the Western Himalayas and showed phanerophytes as dominant life forms along with therophytes. Ghildiyal et al. [136] had undertaken a similar study in the identical topographical zone in Garhwal Himalaya and presented ‘thero-phanerophytic’ rich life forms, which again support our studies. Furthermore, many other researchers, such as Thakur et al. [137], have undertaken similar studies in the Himachal of the Western Himalayas. According to their observations, therophytes were dominant in the region, which has very similar types of climatic conditions. Kapoor and Singh [138] have undertaken similar studies in the Shimla hills of the Western Himalayas and have very much achieved the same findings, which validate our results. Particularly in Jammu and Kashmir, many botanists have carried out studies on the biological spectrum in different regions of UT. Sharma and Raina [139] have undertaken similar studies in the Jammu region of the Western Himalayas. According to their observations, therophytes were dominant, similar to our research in the Himalayan ecosystem/habitat of Jammu and Kashmir, the Western Himalayas. Raina and Kumar [140] carried out studies on biological spectra in the Kishtwar district of Jammu and Kashmir, and our study also shows certain similarities with respect to species composition and family abundance. Again, according to their work, therophytes were the dominant lifeforms that experienced similar topographic conditions of Bani Valley and Sarthal Hill. In district Kathua, Singh et al. [84] carried out similar studies and indicated a thero-phanerophytic type, which again validates our research findings obtained from Bhallesa mountain.

3.4. Leaf Size Spectrum

Leaf size spectra of the study area show 27 leptophyllous (8.23%), 139 nanophyllous (42.38%), 72 microphyllous (21.95%), 80 mesophyllous (24.39%) and 10 megaphyllous (3.05%) (Table 5). Nanophyllous were found to be the highest among the collected specimens, followed by mesophyllous, microphyllous, leptophyllous and megaphyllous. In this study, we have seen that the large-leaved species are found to occur in moist and warm climates, and smaller leaves are found in dry and cold climates. The data provided by Wright et al. [31] for the study of leaves for 7670 plant taxa, along with the climate data from 682 different sites of the world, also suggests that plants with large leaves occur in a wet and hot climate, whereas plants with small leaves occur in high-altitude areas [141]. Haq et al. [110] and his group also suggested that plants with microphyllous and nanophyllous leaves were mostly confined to the higher altitude reaches of the Himalayas. The study on the floristic composition and biological spectrum, conducted in the Keran valley of Kashmir Himalaya, recorded 183 species, where the herbaceous growth form was dominant (67% species) and mesophylls (34%) followed by nanophylls (29%) and microphylls (27%) were major leaf size categories, and therefore, these results confirm the similar findings which we observed in the Bhallesa Hills [120]. This study also confirms that the herbaceous taxa are dominant in the upper regions of the mountains. Shaheen et al. [109] also studied similar patterns of life forms in the Western Himalayas.

3.5. Phenological Periods

The flowering periods of the plant specimens collected from the study area were categorised into four different groups. From January to March, a total number of 20 species were recorded in the flowering stage (6.10%), followed by 118 taxa observed flowering in April to June (35.98%), 171 taxa in July to September (52.13%), and only 19 taxa were seen flowering from October to December (5.79%) (Figure 4). It has been observed that the species growing in the Bhallesa mountain area prefer flowering between July and September, as most of the study regions fall under the temperate zone, which experiences extreme snowfall in the winter season. The plants growing in the region flourish by making their penetrating buds dormant to overcome harsh conditions. Due to this, the plants growing in various habitats mostly bloom in the summer and spring seasons. From July to September, the study area received the maximum of its rainfall; therefore, the high rain allowed the plants to bloom and grow. Several studies, which were undertaken in the past on phenology and the discovery of new plants in the last fifty years, supported the quantitative and phonological studies, better providing a clear picture of the vegetation composition of the area [142]. Kala [143] studied the phenology of sub-aline and alpine plants in the Valley of Flowers National Park and Hemkund, situated in Uttarakhand (Western Himalaya), and recorded April as the month of a favourable growing season, and seed dehiscence was completed from September to October. Another study, undertaken by Pangtey et al. [144], recorded the various developmental stages of 148 species of high-altitude regions of the Pindari glacial moraine area of Kumaun of Central Himalaya (India), concluding that most of the plants on high hills and valleys complete their growth cycles within a short period of favourable conditions to ensure the survival of their progeny—the June to October months are the peak phenophase period. Furthermore, this finding of our study shows similar patterns to the existing studies carried out in mountainous regions by several various other researchers across the globe [145].

3.6. Alien Taxa

Out of the total 328 taxa inventoried from the Bhallesa region, 31.49% (103 taxa) are alien species, while 68.50% (224 taxa) are native to the Asian or Himalayan regions (Table 6). Mostly, the alien plant taxa found growing in the season show affinities with European and American origins. The most common alien species found in the area are: Achillea millefolium L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cerastium glomeratum Thuill., Carum carvi L., Arisaema jacquemontii Blume, Campanula pallida Wall., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Jasminum grandiflorum L., Amaranthus caudatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. Alien species are the potential invaders of the Himalayas. Some earlier studies by Maheshwari [146], who studied naturalised flora, have shown that Indian flora constitutes nearly 18% of the alien flora. A few more studies have also shown the alien taxa of the different regions of India without any perspective on plant invasion in their mind, and important studies include Sharma and Pandey [147], Pandey and Parmar [148] and Nagar et al. [149]. A study conducted by Shrestha [150] on invasive alien plant species in Nepal reported that both the population and number of alien plant species are continuously increasing, and climate changes are likely to intensify the biological invasions in time to come by increasing climatically suitable areas. Alien taxa have more phenotypic plasticity than native plant species, and due to their various superior characteristics, they can easily colonise the wastelands and natural habitats compared to the native species [151,152,153,154]. The families with most of the alien species in India include taxa belonging to Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Lamiaceae [155], and these families are found consistent with similar findings undertaken in India [156], Australia [157] and New Zealand [158]. A total of 31.25% of alien species were recorded from the study area, and the values are comparable with the studies reported by Kohli et al. [159] from the Northwestern Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Various studies have also reported Ageratum conyzoides L., Lantana camara L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. as the most dangerous invasive species regarding the Indian climate, and these species would exert a significant impact on the native communities, resulting in drastic displacement and imbalance in the natural and agriculture ecosystems [159].

3.7. Red List IUCN and Conservation Status

Out of the collected 328 plant taxa, 245of these, from the Bhallesa regions, were found to be not categorised in any category (NE) by IUCN (, accessed on 12 August 2022). Seventy-four plant species are placed as LC, six as EN, one as NT and two as VU (Table 6). No species recorded in the study area falls under the CR category of IUCN. The endangered species Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle, Euphorbia obovata Decne, Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don, Taxus wallichiana Zucc. and Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. were collected from the study area; Platanus orientalis L. and Ulmus wallichiana Planch. were vulnerable, and Fraxinus excelsior L. was found to be a nearly threatened species. The major threats faced by these plant species include the destruction of the natural habitats/ecosystems of plants for developmental activities, livestock grazing and the smuggling of a few high-valued indigenous plant species by locals for their economic upliftment. Trillium govanianum (locally called Nag-Chatri), Picrorhiza kurroa, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, Saussurea roylei (DC.) Sch.Bip. and Aconitum heterophyllum were recorded as well-known among the local people for sale. These illegal and illicit extraction activities lead to a decline in the population of keystone species from the forest of Bhallesa Hills and its adjoining areas of the Pir Panjal mountainous range of the Himalayas.

4. Conclusions

Scientifically proven, the biological spectrum accurately describes the vegetation physiognomy, and the floristic analysis indicates the natural ecological wealth of the ecosystem. Traditional, sample-based research appeared to be the best to demonstrate the diversity of the plant communities from different ecological groups in Himalayan mixed-coniferous forests. The high-altitude plant species of the Bhallesa regions responded differently to the environmental drivers, with chamaephytes and therophytes being tightly linked to the temperate and alpine ecosystems. Documentation of the floristic compositions with the associated environmental parameters provides a better understanding of the vegetational structure and conservation status of the Himalayan ecosystem, on the one hand, by contributing to the feasible management of unique natural resources. The Pir Panjal range of the Himalayas has a rich plant diversity and natural resources, as evidenced by the occurrence of 328 species of higher plants in a small forest zone. This research will serve as a baseline of informative data for studies pertaining to the field of ecology and the environment. This study would be useful in the comparison and differentiation of vegetation composition in the Himalayas and their ecosystems. In our present study, phanerophytes, therophytes and hemicryptophytes share importance in depicting the phenero-, thero-, and hemicryptophytic phytoclimates. This provides an important database for policymakers to make proper management plans for the conservation and feasible use of plant resources. Our study also suggested the important role of biotic factors in shaping the vegetation structure of the landscape, and thus, anthropogenic stress is required to be minimised for the conservation of natural flora. In the upcoming future, different conservation programmes will be required to protect economically valuable flora by providing proper education and knowledge among the people.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, B.S. and O.S.; Data curation, O.S., B.S. and C.M.M.; Formal analysis, O.S., B.S. and C.M.M.; Investigation, O.S. and B.S.; Methodology, O.S. and B.S.; Supervision, B.S.; Validation, O.S., B.S. and C.M.M.; Visualization, B.S. and C.M.M.; Writing—original draft, O.S. and B.S.; Writing—review and editing, B.S. and C.M.M. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


The authors are thankful to AcSIR, Ghaziabad, for the funding, affiliation and registration for the PhD Program. This communication bears institutional publication number CSIR-NBRI_MS/2022/10/02.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.


We are highly grateful to Director CSIR-IIIM, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, and Director CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow, U.P., for providing the herbarium facilities and encouragement to carry out this work. The authors also acknowledge the local people of the study area and the Jammu and Kashmir Forest Department for their support with the surveys and field collections.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. Location map of the study area.
Figure 1. Location map of the study area.
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Figure 2. Biological spectra of the taxa recorded in the Bhallesa region (Jammu and Kashmir), Western Himalayas, India, based on Raunkiaer’s system of classification.
Figure 2. Biological spectra of the taxa recorded in the Bhallesa region (Jammu and Kashmir), Western Himalayas, India, based on Raunkiaer’s system of classification.
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Figure 3. Comparison of the biological spectra of the taxa recorded in the Bhallesa region (Jammu and Kashmir), Western Himalayas, India, with Raunkiaer’s normal spectra (PH: phanerophytes; mcPH: microphanerophytes; mgPH: megaphanerophytes; msPH: mesophanerophytes; nnPH: nanophanerophytes; CH: chamaephytes; GE: geophytes; HC: hemicryptophytes; TH: therophytes; L: lianas, Ep: epiphytes; 0* was taken into consideration for deviation analysis).
Figure 3. Comparison of the biological spectra of the taxa recorded in the Bhallesa region (Jammu and Kashmir), Western Himalayas, India, with Raunkiaer’s normal spectra (PH: phanerophytes; mcPH: microphanerophytes; mgPH: megaphanerophytes; msPH: mesophanerophytes; nnPH: nanophanerophytes; CH: chamaephytes; GE: geophytes; HC: hemicryptophytes; TH: therophytes; L: lianas, Ep: epiphytes; 0* was taken into consideration for deviation analysis).
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Figure 4. Phenology of the studied plant taxa in Bhallesa region, Pir Panjal Range, Himalayas.
Figure 4. Phenology of the studied plant taxa in Bhallesa region, Pir Panjal Range, Himalayas.
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Table 1. Floristic composition of Bhallesa Hills, Pir PanjalMountain Range, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Table 1. Floristic composition of Bhallesa Hills, Pir PanjalMountain Range, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
GroupsCategories (APG IV)Selected Plots in Bhallesa Study Area
GPS Coordinates33°01′56″N, 75°54′47″E33°01′30″N,76° 01′50″E32°04′ 52″N, 75 47′42″E33°02′60″N, 76°02′42″E
Elevation (m.a.s.l.)1625 to 29892132 to 3799 1760 to 28872225 to 4000
A. Angiosperms *I. Magnoliids111000000000
II. Monocots716187182161924102327
II. Eudicots41314312153121531318
III. Superrosids2223693333610
IV. Rosids214857153336194352163339
V. Superasterids4131638134101631314
VI. Asterids204656195066204863175976
Sub-Total 59137164501271605513517352147184
B. Gymnosperms245244244367
C. Lycophytes and Ferns456578457444
** Total65146175571381726114418459157195
* For angiosperms only; ** total 328 species, 228 genera, 78 families and 35 orders; total 256 herbs, 43 shrubs, 29 trees; m.a.s.l. (meter above sea level); total 273 dicotyledons; total 39 monocotyledons; total 7 gymnosperms; total 9 lycophytes and ferns.
Table 2. Plant species richness, basal area, density and diversity indices for Bhallesa forested regions (Chilli, Kahal, Chanwari, Gandoh) of Pir Panjal Range, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Table 2. Plant species richness, basal area, density and diversity indices for Bhallesa forested regions (Chilli, Kahal, Chanwari, Gandoh) of Pir Panjal Range, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
CategoriesTree CommunityShrub CommunityHerb Community
Plant species richness1313152325192022157139150130
Number of families9910151816161745434341
Basal area (m2 ha−1)144.52 ± 29.6085.08
± 20.43
119.24 ± 15.1844.16 ± 14.29--------
Density (ha−1)240 1362161921056816672656191,200196,800206,000146,400
H’1.95 ± 0.502.12 ± 0.472.52 ± 0.322.78 ± 0.412.81 ± 0.362.73 ± 0.872.71 ± 0.672.92 ± 0.774.774.684.674.59
D0.77 ± 0.270.82 ± 0.130.89 ± 0.320.91 ± 0.280.91 ± 0.370.92 ± 0.450.91 ± 0.380.94 ± 0.330.990.980.980.98
J0.54 ± 0.080.64 ± 0.040.83 ± 0.040.71 ± 0.110.66 ± 0.060.81 ± 0.130.79 ± 0.090.84 ± 0.120.750.780.720.76
Cl: Chilli, Ka: Kahal, Ch: Chanwari, Gd: Gandoh; H’: Shannon–Wiener index, D: Simpson index of diversity, J: Pielou’s evenness index.
Table 3. Proportion (%) of basal area, density and IVI for various tree species ofBhallesa forested regions (Chilli, Kahal, Chanwari, Gandoh) of Pir Panjal Range, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Table 3. Proportion (%) of basal area, density and IVI for various tree species ofBhallesa forested regions (Chilli, Kahal, Chanwari, Gandoh) of Pir Panjal Range, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
TaxaBasal Area (m2 ha−1)Density (ha−1)IVI
Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle7.680.000.000.002400025.840.000.000.00
Acer caesium Wall. ex Br.0.001.844.601.84082080.0016.7622.4611.07
Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f.3.841.925.761.688412411.259.5517.286.15
Alnus nepalensis D.Don5.881.960.000.001240014.339.590.000.00
Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl.
Betula utilis D.Don2.
Cedrusdeodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don39.1624.9217.8042.004428202869.1162.9234.5356.77
Celtis australis L.
Corylus colurna L.0.920.000.001.9840084.930.000.0011.13
Crataegus songarica K.Koch1.
Ficus hispida L.0.001.364.081.32041240.008.8912.435.86
Ficus palmata Forssk.
Fraxinus excelsior L.
Juglans regia L.5.922.968.883.488412412.6910.7716.457.61
Juniperus communis L.3.840.000.002.881200812.920.000.0011.91
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob.
Morus alba L.
Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss11.7611.7619.6012.721212201218.4031.3436.0421.98
Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jacks57.0027.3629.6418.24100485248107.4297.8973.0758.72
Platanus orientalis L.
Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle0.
Quercus floribunda Lindl. ex A.Camus0.
Quercus ilex L.
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.0.002.880.000.0008000.0013.620.000.00
Rhododendron arboreum Sm.1.681.685.043.56441245.489.2613.237.67
Robinia pseudoacacia L.
Taxus wallichiana Zucc.3.400.000.000.0040006.650.000.000.00
Trema orientale (L.) Blume0.
Ulmus wallichiana Planch.
Cl: Chilli, Ka: Kahal, Ch: Chanwari, Gd: Gandoh; IVI: importance value index; m2: square meter; ha−1: per hectare.
Table 4. Biological spectra (% of all lifeforms) of Bhallesa Hill (Jammu and Kashmir), Pir Panjal Mountain, India and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s normal spectra.
Table 4. Biological spectra (% of all lifeforms) of Bhallesa Hill (Jammu and Kashmir), Pir Panjal Mountain, India and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s normal spectra.
Raunkiaer’s Life FormsNumber of Plant TaxaBiological Spectra (%) of Study AreaRaunkiaer’s Normal Worldwide Spectra (%)Deviation = Raunkiaer’s Normal
Spectra–Biological Spectra (%) of Study Area
PH *65 *19.8246.0026.18
mcPH175.180.00 **–5.18
L61.830.00 **–1.83
Ep10.300.00 **−0.30
Raunkiaer’s lifeforms: GE—geophyte (perennial herbaceous species with complete periodic reduction of shoot system to storage organs); TH—therophyte (annuals whose root and shoot system dies after seed production within a year); PH *—phanerophyte (woody plants that grow >50 cm, whose shoots do not die back periodically to that height); CH—chamaephyte (woody perennial plants that grow <50 cm above the ground surface, whose shoots die back periodically to that height and above); HC—hemicryptophyte (perennial herbaceous species with periodic remnant reduction of shoot system that lies on the ground); L—liana (plants that grow by supporting themselves with other plants and are rooted in the ground); Ep—epiphyte (plants that grow by supporting themselves with other plants, bears roots on other plants and germinates). Raunkiaer′s sub-type phanerophyte life forms: mgPH—megaphanerophyte (>30 m tall); msPH—mesophanerophyte (8–30 m); mcPH—microphanerophyte (2–8 m); nnPH—nanophanerophyte (0.5–2 m). ** Value zero (0) was taken into consideration for deviation data.
Table 5. Leaf spectra (% of all life forms) of Bhallesa regions (Jammu and Kashmir), Pir Panjal Mountain, Himalayas, India.
Table 5. Leaf spectra (% of all life forms) of Bhallesa regions (Jammu and Kashmir), Pir Panjal Mountain, Himalayas, India.
Raunkiaer’s Life FormsNumber of Plant TaxaPercentage (%)
MG: megaphyll, LP: leptophyll, MS: mesophyll, NP: nanophyll (NP), MI: microphyll.
Table 6. Plant composition of Bhallesa region of District Doda, Jammu and Kashmir, Pir Panjal Himalayan Mountain of India.
Table 6. Plant composition of Bhallesa region of District Doda, Jammu and Kashmir, Pir Panjal Himalayan Mountain of India.
Plant Groups as APG IV (Voucher Number)HabitLife SpanPhenology PeriodHabitatRaunkiaer′s
Life Forms
Raunkiaer′sSub-TypesLeafSpectraConservation Status (IUCN)Specific DistributionNative (N)/Alien (A)
Laurales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Lauraceae Juss.
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob. (54,761)TPSep–OctSparse forests and thicketsPHmsPHMILCHimalayasN
Acorales Mart.
Acoraceae Mart.
Acorus calamus L. (56,255)HPJul–SepRiver BanksGE NPLCNorth AmericaA
Alismatales R.Br. ex Bercht & J.Presl
Araceae Juss.
Arisaema flavum (Forssk.) Schott. (56,347)HPJun–Jul Field margins GE MSNEAsiaN
Arisaema jacquemontii Blume (57,631)HPApr–JunOpen forestsGE MSLCNorth America, EurasiaA
Dioscoreales Mart
Dioscorea bulbifera L. (57,667)SAJul–SepMixed
L NPNEHimalayasN
Liliales Perleb
Liliaceae Juss.
Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don (56,291)PHAug–OctAlpine thickets and scrubsHC LPNEAsia N
Asparagales Link
Orchidaceae Juss.
Calanthe tricarinata Lindl. (57,667)HPApr–JunGrassy slopesGE NPNEHimalayasN
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo (56,210)HPJul–SepAlpine scrubs and thicketsGE NPNEIndian subcontinentN
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz (57,602)HPJul–SepMoist shady placesGE MILCAsia and AfricaA
Iridaceae Juss.
Iris hookeriana Foster (55,708)HPApr–JunGrassy slopes GE NPNEHimalayas N
Iris kashmiriana Baker (55,721)HPJun–JulGrassy areas, graveyardsGE NPNEHimalayasN
Amaryllidaceae J.St.Hil
Allium humile Kunth (56,229)HPJun–JulAlpine thickets and rocky crevicesGE MINEHimalayasN
Allium stracheyi Baker (56,228)HPJun–JulAlpine thickets and rocky crevicesGE MINEHimalayasN
Asparagaceae Juss.
Asparagus filicinus Buch.–Ham. ex D.Don (54,548)HSMay–JulMoist shady placesPHnnPHMIDDHimalayasN
Maianthemum purpureum (Wall.) La Frankie (56,231)HPJun–JulForest Thickets and slopesCH MSNEHimalayasN
Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle (56,230)HPJun–AugForest Thickets and marginsGE LPNEHimalayasN
Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. (56,224)HPJun–AugForest Thickets and marginsGE LPNEEurasiaA
Poales Small
Cyperaceae Juss.
Carex nivalis Boott (55,767)PHMay–JunHill slopesHC MINEEurasiaA
Cyperus niveus Retz. (56,348)HASep–OctStream sidesTH MINEAsiaN
Cyperus rotundus L. (56,408)HAMay–JunGrasslandsTH MILCAfrica and EuropeA
Poaceae Barnhart
Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. (56,319)H PJul–SepGrasslands and slopesHC NPLCEurasiaA
Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst. (56,336)HAJul–SepRocky surfacesTH NPLCEurasiaA
Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng (56,337)HAMay–JunGrasslandsTH MINEIndian subcontinentN
Capillipedium parviflorum (R.Br.) Stapf (57,651)HPJul–SepMountain slopesTH NPNEEuropeA
Cenchrus flaccidus (Griseb.) Morrone (56,421)HAMay–JunWaste areasHC MSLCSouth AfricaA
Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov. (56,317)HAJun–JulMoist shady placesTH MSNEAsiaN
Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. (56,339)HPAug–SepMoist shady placesHC MSNEEurasiaA
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (56,260)HPSep–DecRoad sides open areasHC NPNEAfricaA
Echinochloa crus–galli (L.) P.Beauv (56,403)HPMay–JunForest margins and road sidesHC NPLCSouth AfricaA
Elymus semicostatus (Steud.) Melderis (56,432)HPJul–AugMountain slopesHC NPNEIndian subcontinent N
Isachne himalaica Hook.f. (65,322)HPMay–JunMoist, swampy areasHC NPNEHimalayasN
Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv. (56,323)HPJul–AugField margins and
road sides
Miscanthus nepalensis (Trin.) Hack. (56,326)HPAug–SepMountain slopes and valleysHC MSNEHimalayasN
Panicum virgatum L. (56,329)HPJul–AugField sides TH NPLCNorthAmericaA
Poa annua L. (56,304)HAApr–JunMoist shady placesTH MSLCSouthAmericaA
Polypogon fugax Nees ex. Steud. (56,328)HAJul–AugMoist shady places in forestsTH NPNESouthAmericaA
Saccharum fillifolium Steud. (56,309)HPApr–JunGrasslandsTH NPNEHimalayasN
Saccharum spontaneum L. (56,318)HPJul–AugHill slopesHC NPLCIndian subcontinentN
Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv. (56,330)HPJul–AugSlopes and Waste landsTH MSNEAfricaA
Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv. (56,331)HPMay–JunRoadsides and field marginsTH LPNEAsiaN
II. Eudicots
Ranunculales Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl
Papaveraceae Juss.
Corydalis diphylla Wall.
HPApr–JunSteam sides, shady placesGE NPNEHimalayasN
Corydalis vaginans Royle (57,665)HPApr–JunStream sides, rock crevicesGE NPNEHimalayasN
Corydalis govaniana Wall.
HPApr–JunForest understories, moist placesGE NPNEHimalayasN
Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (56,374)HPMar–JunField margins and thickets TH LPNEHimalayasN
Papaver guilelmi–waldemarii (Klotzsch) Christenh. & Byng
HPJul–SepRocky crevicesCH MSNEHimalayasN
Berberidaceae Juss.
Berberis aristata DC. (56,315)SPApr–JunOpen waste landsPHmcPHNPLCHimalayasN
Berberis jaeschkeana C.K.Schneid (57,637)SPApr–JunForest Thickets, WastelandsPHmcPHNPNEHimalayasN
Berberis lycium Royle (54,312)SPApr–JunForest margins, open waste landsPHmcPHNPLCHimalayasN
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (56,285)HPJun–JulAlpine region open areasHC MINEAsiaN
Ranunculaceae Juss.
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle (55,769)HPJul–SepAlpine thickets and scrubsCH NPENIndian subcontinentN
Aconitum lethale Griff (55,751)HPJul–SepAlpine thickets and scrubsCH NPNEIndian subcontinentN
Actaea spicata L. (56,297)HPJul–AugMoist shady places in forestsCH MSLCEurope A
Anemonastrum obtusilobum (D.Don) Mosyakin
HPApr–JuneForest margins and alpine meadowsCH MSNEHimalayasN
Anemonastrum polyanthes (D.Don) Holub (55,732)HPJun–JulSteep slopes near glaciersCH MSNEHimalayasN
Anemonstarum tetrasepalum (Royle) Holub (54,513)HPJun–JulSteep slopes, alpine scrubsCH MSNEHimalayasN
Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. ex Royle (54,766)HPApr–JunForests, shady placesHC NPNEHimalayasN
Caltha alba Cambess (55,771)HPJul–Sep.Stream sidesCH NPNEHimalayasN
Caltha palustris L. (54,528)HPJul–SepStream sides CH MSLCHimalayasN
Clematis barbellata Edgew. (57,626)SPApr–JunForests, Grassy slopesL NPNEHimalayasN
Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thomson (54,789)HPMay–JunHill slides, forest marginsTH MSNEHimalayasN
Delphinum cashmerianum Royle (54,508)HPJul–SepAlpine scrubs and thickets TH MSNEIndian subcontinentN
Hepatica falconeri (Thomson) Steward (54,362)HPApr–JunShady places in forestsCH MSNEIndian subcontinentN
Ranunculus distans D.Don (54,380)HPJul–OctStream sides, slopedareasGE NPNEAsiaN
Ranunculus bulbosus L.
HPApr–JunDisturbed woods, waste landsGE NPNEHimalayasN
Ranunculus hirtellus Royle (56,218)HPApr–JulForest margins and alpine meado3ewsCH MSNEHimalayasN
Thalictrum foliolosum DC. (56,217)SPJun–AugAlpine thickets and scrubsCH MINEIndian subcontinentN
Thalictrum virgatum Hook.f. & Thomson (56,314)SPJun–AugForrest marginsCH MINEHimalayasN
Proteales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Platanaceae T.Lestib
Platanus orientalis L. (57,677)TPApr–MayOpen areas village sidesPHmgPHMSVUEurope A
Saxifragales Bercht. & J. Presl
Hamamelidaceae R.Br.
Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne.) Rehder (7632)SPApr–JunDense forestsPHmsPHNPLCCentral AmericaA
Saxifragaceae Juss.
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.(54,359)HPApr–JunRocky crevicesCH NPLCSouthAmericaA
Saxifraga cernua L. (54,542)HPAug–SepStream sides in alpine regionsCH MINENorth AmericaA
Saxifraga parnassifolia D.Don (55,724)HPAug–SepStream sides in alpine regionsCH NPNEEurasiaA
Saxifraga sibirica L. (55,472)HPAug–SepStream sides in alpine regionsCH NPLCHimalayasN
Crassulaceae J.St.–Hil.
Hylotelephiu mewersii (Ledeb.) H.Ohba (55,740)HPJul–SepForests, rock crevicesCH NPNEAfghanistan to SiberiaA
Rhodiola bupleuroides (Wall.ex Hook.f. & Thomson) S.H.Fu. (55,797)HPJul–AugForest Thickets, Rocky slopesCH LPNEHimalayasN
Rhodiola himalensis (D.Don) S.H.Fu (56,204)HPJul–SepRocky crevicesin alpine areasCH LPNEHimalayasN
Rhodiola wallichiana (Hook.) S.H.Fu (55,797)HPJul–AugForest thickets and Rocky scrubsCH LPNEHimalayasN
Rosularia adenotricha (Wall. ex Edgew) C.–A.Jansson (57,666)HPMay–JunRocky crevicesTH MINEHimalayasN
Sedum orades (Decne.) Raym.–Hamet (55,723)HPJul–SepRocky crevicesTH MINEHimalayasN
Fabales Bromhead
Fabaceae Lindl.
Indigofera heterantha Wall. ex Brandis (57,625)SPApr–JunForest margins waste landsPHmcPHMSLCHimalayasN
Lotus corniculatus L. (RRLH57635)HPApr–JunAlpine meadowsCH MSLCAsiaN
Medicago lupulina L. (56,295)HPJul–SepWoodland marginsriverbanksTH NPLCEuropeA
Oxytropis lapponica (Wahlenb.) J.Gay (56,406)HPJun–AugAlpine meadowsGE MINEEurasiaA
Phyllodium elegans (Lour.) Desv. (57,633)SPJul–SepField margins, waste landsPHnnPHMINEEurasia and North AmericaA
Robinia pseudoacacia L. (57,638)TPApr–JunWaste lands, road sidesPHmgPHMSLCEuropeA
Thermopsis barbata Benth. (54,531)HPJul–AugAlpine high areasCH MSNEEurasiaA
Trifolium pratense L. (57,641)HPApr–MayGrasslands meadowsHC NPLCHimalayasN
Rosales Bercht. & J.Presl
Rosaceae Juss.
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (57,622)HPJul–SepInside forestsTH MSNEHimalayasN
Cotoneaster micrphyllus Wall. ex Lindl. (54,527)SPMay–JunAlpine rich regionsPHmcPHNPNEHimalayasN
Crataegus songarica K. Koch (54,737)TPApr–JunField marginsPHmgPHNPLCHimalayasN
Filipendula vestita (Wall. ex G.Don) Maxim. (55,738)HPMay–AugAlpine meadows and scrubsCH NPNEHimalayasN
Fragaria nubicola (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) Lacaita (55,768)HPMay–AugMeadows, forest valleysTH MSNEHimalayasN
Geumelatum Wall. ex G.Don (55,707)HPApr–JunInside forestsCH NPNEIndo–Malayan regionN
Geum urbanum L. (54,725)HPJul–SepForest disturbed areasCH NPLCHimalayasN
Potentilla argyrophylla Wall. ex Lehm. (55,786)HPMay–JunForest thickets and meadowsCH LPNEHimalayasN
Potentilla atrosanguinea G.Lodd. (54,538)HPMay–JunForest thickets and meadows CH NPNEEurope and America
Potentilla indica (Andrews) Th.Wolf (54,340)HPJun–AugForest scrubs and marginsCH NPNEHimalayasN
Potentilla nepalensis Hook. (54,759)HPJul–AugForest margins and thicketsCH LPNEAsia and North AmericaA
Potentilla reptans L. (54,355)HPApr–JunForest margins and thickets CH NPNEEgypt and North AfricaA
Prinsepia utilis Royle (54,702)HPApr–JunWaste lands, forest slopesPHnnPHMINEHimalayasN
Rosa moschata Herrm. (54,304)SPMay–JunForest marginsPHnnPHMSNEHimalayasN
Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle (54,742)SPMay–JunForrest slopes and marginsL NPNEHimalayasN
Rubus ellipticus Sm. (54,734)SPApr–MayRiver sides, sparse forestsPHnnPHMSLCHimalayasN
Rubus idaeus L. (57,642)SPApr–JunRiver sides and forest marginsPHnnPHNPLCAsiaN
Rubus niveus Thunb.
SPMay–JulRiver sides and forest PHnnPHNPNEHimalayasN
Sibbaldia cuneata Edgew. (55,735)HPJul–SepAlpine scrubs and meadowsCH NPNEEurasia and AfricaA
Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder (54,783)SPJul–AugRiver sides, forest marginsPHmcPHMINEHimalayasN
Spiraea canescens D.Don (57,630)SPJul–AugForest margins, waste landsPHmcPHNPLCHimalayasN
Elaeagnaceae Juss
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. (54,747)SPApr–JunForest thickets and marginsL NPLCHimalayasN
Ulmaceae Mirb.
Ulmus wallichiana Planch. (57,606)TPMar–AprTemperate forests, village sidesPHmgPHMSUVIndian subcontinentN
Cannabaceae Mart.
Cannabis sativa L. (56,223)HPAug–SepWaste lands, field marginsCH NPNEAsiaN
Celtis australis L. (54,719)TPMar–AprRoadsides, field marginsPHmgPHNPLCEuropeA
Trema orientale (L.) Blume (56,236)TPJul–SepDry scrubs and open slopesPHmgPHNPLCAsiaN
Moraceae Gaudich.
Ficus hispida L.f. (54,723)TPJun–JulForest marginsPHmsPHMSLCHimalayasN
Ficus palmata Forssk. (56,205)TPAug–NovForest slopesPHmsPHMSNEHimalayasN
Morus alba L. (56,377)TPApr–MayWaste lands and village sidesPHmsPHMSLCHimalayasN
Urticaceae Juss.
Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (54,728)HAOct–NovDisturbed areas, CH MSNEHimalayasN
Pilea umbrosa Wedd. ex Blume (54,326)HPJul–AugShady, moist placesCH NPNEIndian subcontinentN
Urtica dioica L. (54,501)HPJun–SepWaste landsHC MSNEIndian SubcontinentN
Fagales Engl.
Fagaceae Dumort.
Quercus floribunda Lindl. ex A.Camus (56,305)TPAug–OctWastelands, forest marginsPHmgPHMILCHimalayasN
Quercus ilex L. (54,376)TPApr–MayField margins, Waste landsPHmgPHMILCEuropeA
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. (56,235)TPAug–OctSparse forests and field marginsPHmgPHMILCIndian subcontinentN
Juglandaceae DC. ex Prleb.
Juglans regia L. (54,336)TPApr–SepField margins PHmsPHMILCWestern HimalayasN
Betulaceae Gray
Alnus nepalensis D.Don (56,292)TPJul–SepSparse forests and river banksPHmcPHMILCHimalayasN
Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. (56,383)TPSep–Oct PHmcPHMILCHimalayasN
Betula utilis D.Don (56,289)TPMay–Jun PHmsPHMILCHimalayasN
Corylus colurna L. (56,290)TPMar–Apr PHmsPHMSLCAsiaN
Cucurbitales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Cucurbitaceae Juss.
Solena heterophylla Lour. (54,790)SPApr–JunMixed forest thicketsL MINEHimalayasN
Datiscaceae Dumort.
Datisca cannabina L. (56,374)SPMay–AugForest margins and river sidesPHnnPHMSNEEurope and HimalayasNMA
Celastrales Link
Celasteraceae R.Br.
Parnassia nubicola Wall. ex Royle (55,709)HPJul–SepAline meadows and scrubsCH MSNEHimalayasN
Oxalidales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Oxalidaceae R.Br.
Oxalis acetosella L. (54,328)HPJul–SepForest shady placesTH MSNEHimalayasN
Malpighiales Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl
Hypericaceae Juss.
Hypericum elodeoides Choisy (54,740)HPJul–SepDamp areas in forestsPHnnPHNPNEHimalayasN
Hypericum hookerianum Wight & Arn. (54,723)SPApr–JunForest marginsPHnnPHNPNENorth AmericaA
Hypericum perforatum L. (57,662)SPJul–SepForest scrubs, open areasPHnnPHNPLCHimalayasN
Violaceae Batsch
Viola canescens Wall. (54,376)HPMar–AprShady, moist places in forestsTH NPNEEurasiaA
Salicaceae Mirb.
Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle (56,248)TPMay–JunRoad sides and waste landsPHmgPHMSLCHimalayasN
Salix daltoniana Andersson (54,711)TPMay–JunForest thickets and slopesPHmsPHNPNEEuropeA
Euphorbiaceae Juss.
Euphorbia obovata Decne. (57,620)HPJul–SepSlopy grasslandsTH NPENHimalayasN
Euphorbia prolifera Buch.–Ham. ex D.Don. (57,620)HPJun–AugGrasslands and forest marginsTH NPNEHimalayasN
Euphorbia wallichii Hook.f. (56,394)HPJun–AugGrasslands and forest marginsTH NPNEHimalayasN
Gerianales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Geraniaceae Juss.
Geranium mascatense Boiss. (54,748)HPJul–SepForest thickets and scrubsTH NPNEIndian subcontinentN
Geranium wallichianum D.Don ex Sweet (54,334)HPJul–SepForest thickets and scrubsTH NPLCIndianSubcontinentN
Melianthaceae Horan.
Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don (55,710)HPMay–JunForest thickets and scrubsGE MSENHimalayasN
Myrtales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Onagraceae Juss.
Oenothera biennis L. (55,789)HPJul–SepOpen and disturbed areasTH MSNEHimalayasN
Oenothera rosea L’Hér. ex Aiton (57,663)HPJul–Sep Field margins, open areasTH NPNEEuropeA
Sapindales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Sapindaceae Juss.
Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis (54,717)TPApr–JunMixed coniferous forestsPHmgPHMGLCHimalayasN
Aesculus indica (Wall.ex Cambess) Hook. (57,672)TPApr–JunMixed coniferous forestsPHmgPHMGLCHimalayasN
Rutaceae Juss.
Skimmia laureola (DC.) Decne. (54,526)SPApr–MayMixed coniferous forestsPHmcPHMGNEHimalayasN
Malvales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Malvaceae Juss.
Hibiscus syriacus L. (57,673)SPJul–SepHill slides along stream sidesPHmcPHNPNEHimalayasN
Malva cachemiriana (Cambess.) Alef. (56,241)HPJul–SepField margins and Waste landsTH MSNEHimalayasN
Malva neglecta Wallr. (57,650)HPJul–SepDisturbed areasTH LPLCAsiaN
Brassicales Bromhead
Brassicaceae Burnett
Arabis alpina L.
HAMay–JulRoad sides, slopesCH NPNEEurasiaA
Arabis amplexicaulis Edgew. (54,369)HAJun–JulForest and field marginsTH NPNEEurasiaA
Barbarea intermedia Boreau (56,221)HPJul–Aug Open areas and forest marginsTH MINEEuropeA
Capsella–bursa pastoris (L.) MediK. (56,354)HPMar–AprField margins and open landsTH MILCEurasia and AfricaA
Cardamine impatiens L. (56,226)HAMay–JulField margins and WastelandsHC MINEEurasiaA
Crucihimalaya stricta (Cambess.) Al Shebaz, O′Kane & R.A.Price
HAApr–JunForest margins, grassy slopesTH NPNEIndian subcontinentN
Draba nuda (Bél.) Al–Shehbaz & M.Koch (54,324)HAApr–JunStream sides, moist placesTH NPNEHimalayasN
Lepidium virginicum L. (57,610)HAJul–SepForest margins and filed edgesTH NPNENorthAmericaA
Nasturtium officinale W.T.Aiton (55,798)HPApr–SepMoist, damp areas along streamsTH NPLCAsia and AfricaN
Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbás (54,356)HAApr–JunShady crevices, river sidesTH NPLCHimalayasN
Super Asterids
Caryophyllales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Polygonaceae Juss.
Bistorta affinis (D.Don) Greene (55,718)HPJul–SepAlpine scrubs and scrubsCH LPNEHimalayasN
Bistorta amplexicaulis (D.Don) Greene (57,643)HPJul–SepMountain scrubs, field marginsCH LPNEAfrica and SouthAmericaA
Bistorta vivipara (L.) Delarbre (54,512)HPJul–AugMountain scrubsCH LPNEHimalayasN
Fagopyrum cymosum (Trevir.) Meisn. (55,762)HPJul–SepField margins and open areasCH LPNEHimalayasN
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (67,644)HPJul–SepField margins, Waste landsCH MSNEIndian subcontinentN
Koenigia rumicifolia (Royle ex Bab.) T.M.Schust. & Reveal (55,734)HPJul–SepAlpine thickets and scrubsTH MSNEHimalayasN
Koenigia alpina (All.) T.M. Schust & Reveal (54,766)HPJul–AugMountain slopes, field marginsTH NPNEHimalayasN
Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill (56,384)HPMay–AugAlpine scrubs and thicketsCH MINEEurope and AmericaA
Persicaria glabra (Willd.) (56,358)HPSep–NovMoist shady places in forestsCH MILCEurasiaA
Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Delarbre (56,281)HAAug–NovMoist shady places along roadsides CH MILCEurasiaA
Rheum webbianum Royle (55,777)HPAug–SepAlpine scrubs, meadowsGE MGNEHimalayasN
Rumex dentatus L. (56,357)HPJun–JulMountain slopes and moist valleysGE MSLCAsiaN
Rumex hastatus D.Don (54,703)HPApr–JunDry mountain slopesCH MINEIndian subcontinentN
Rumex nepalensis Spreng. (56,273)HPJun–JulField margins and waste landsHC MSNEAsia and AfricaN
Caryophyllaceae Juss.
Acanthophyllum cerastioides (D.Don) Madhani & Zarre (54,512)HPJul–SepRocky slopes in alpine meadowsCH NPNEHimalayasN
Cerastiumdavuricum Fisch. ex Spreng. (54,314)HPApr–JunStream sides, damp areasTH NPNEEurope and NorthAmericaA
Cerastiumglomeratum Thuill. (54,343)HPMay–JunMoist damp areas along streamsTH NPNEEuropeA
Silene indica Roxb. ex Otth (55,878)HPJul–AugMountain scrubs and forest marginsTH NPNEEurope and NorthAmericaA
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (57,616)HPJul–AugMountain scrubsTH NPLCEuropeA
Amaranthaceae Juss.
Achyranthyes aspera L. (54,755)HPJul–AugForest slopes, waste landsCH NPNESouth America A
Amaranthus caudatus L. (576,04)HAJul–SepField marginsTH MINEEurasia
Amaranthus viridis L. (563,95)HAJun–AugField marginsTH MINEAmericaA
Blitum virgatum L.
HAJul–SepForest marginsTH MINEHimalayasN
Chenopodium album L. (55,770)HAJul–SepField margins, waste landsTH MINEHimalayasN
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (56,360)HAJul–SepField margins and Waste landsTH MINEAmericaA
Phytolaccaceae R.Br.
Phytolacca acinosa Roxb (57,619)HPJul–AugForest understoriesGE MGNEAmericaA
Ericales Bercht. & J.Presl
Balsaminaceae A.Rich.
Impatiens balfourii Hook.f. (54,762)HPJul–AugStream sides, field marginsCH LPNEAustraliaA
Impatiens brachycentra Kar. & Kir. (55,785)HAAug–SepForest margins, along streamsCH MSNEEurasia and AfricaA
Impatiens edgeworthii Hook.f. (55,782)HAJul–SepInside forests, moist areasCH MSNEEurasia and AfricaA
Polemoniaceae Juss.
Polemonium caeruleum L. (55,761)HPApr–JunMoist areas in forestsCH MSNEAsiaN
Primulaceae Batsch ex Borkh.
Androsace rotundifolia Hardw. (54,789)HPApr–JunGrassy slopes in the forestsHC NPNEHimalayasN
Androsace sarmentosa Wall. (56,215)HPJun–JulRocky surfaces in high alpine regionsHC NPNEHimalayasN
Primula denticulata Sm. (57,689)HPApr–JunAlpine thickets and moist scrubsGE MSNEHimalayasN
Primula matthioli (L.) V.A. Richt. (56,219)HPJun–JulAlpine thickets and moist scrubsGE MSNEEuropeA
Primula rosea Royle (56,225)HPJun–JulAlpine thickets and moist scrubsGE MINEHimalayasN
Ericaceae Juss.
Rhododendron anthopogon D.Don (55,741)SPApr–JunHigh mountain scrubsPHmcPHNPNEEurasia A
Rhododendron arboretum (54,394)TPApr–JunMixed temperate forestsPHmsPHMSLCHimalayasN
Rhododendron campanulatum D.Don (55,725)SPMay–JunHigh alpine scrubsPHmcPHNPNEEurasiaA
Gentianales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Rubiaceae Juss.
Rubia cordifolia L. (57,636)HPJul–SepSparse forestHC NPNEHimalayasN
Gentianaceae Juss.
Gentiana carinata (D.Don ex G.Don) Royle ex D.Don (56,208)HAJul–AugAlpine meadows and thickets HC NPNEHimalayasN
Gentiana argentea (Royle ex D.Don) Royle ex D.Don
HAMar–AprWaste lands, grassy slopesHC NPNEEurope and North AmericaA
Jaeschkea oligosperma Knobl. (55,701)HAJul–SepGrassy slopes, grasslandsTH MSNEHimalayasN
Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H.Karst. (55,796)HPAug–SepGrassy slopes, grasslandsTH NPNEHimalayasN
Apocynaceae Juss.
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.
HPMay–JunThickets, forest marginsCH MSNEHimalayasN
Boraginales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Boraginaceae Juss.
Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G.Don) I.M.Jhonst.
HPJun–JulMountain slopes, rock cervicesCH MINEHimalayasN
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. (55,779)HPJun–AugForest margins and thicketsTH NPNESouth AfricaA
Cynoglossum wallichii G.Don (54,792)HPMay–AugHill slides, meadowsTH NPNENorthAmericaA
Hackelia macrophylla (Brand) I.M.Jhonst. (563,362)HPJun–JulAlpine thickets and scrubsTH MiNEHimalayasN
Hackelia uncinata (Royle ex Benth.) C.E.C Fisch. (56,238)HPJun–JulAlpine thickets and scrubsTH MINEAsiaN
Lindelofia longiflora (DC.) Baill. (57,615)HPApr–JunGrasslands and slopesCH MINEAsiaN
Myosotis scorpioides L. (54,760)HPMay–JunForest margins slopesHC MSNEIndian subcontinetN
Trichodesma indicum (L.) Sm. (54,319)HPMar–AprShady and moist placesTH NPNEEurasiaA
Solanales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Convolvulaceae Juss.
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth (57,612)HPJul–SepFields, waste landsTH MSNEHimalayasN
Solanaceae Juss.
Datura stramonium L. (57,639)HPJul–SepWastelands, road sideHC MGNEJapan and South KoreaA
Lamiales Bromhead
Oleaceae Hoffmanns.
Chrysojasminum humile (L.) Banfi (56,247)SPJul–SepRiversides PHmcPHMINEIndian subcontinentN
Fraxinus excelsior L. (54,725)TPApr–JunField margins, roadsidesPHmgPHNPNTHimalayasN
Jasminum grandiflorum L. (54,767)SPJul–SepForest margins, slopy areasL MINEEurasiaA
Syringa emodi Wall. ex Royle (56,284)SPSep–OctAlpine scrubs and thicketsPHnnPHMSNEHimalayasN
Plantaginaceae Juss.
Digitalis lanata Ehrh. (56,288)HAJun–AugOpen areas and scrubs TH NPLCEurope and AmericaA
Digitalis purpurea L. (57,607)HAMay–JunForest margins TH NPLCHimalayasN
Lagotis cashmeriana (Royle ex Benth.) Rupr. (55,753)HPJul–AugAlpine thickets and scrubsHC NPNEAsiaN
Lagotis kunawurensis (Royle ex Benth.) Rupr. (56,222)HPJul–AugAlpine scrubs and meadowsHC NPNEHimalayasN
Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (55,758)HPJul–SepAlpine scrubs and thicketsCH NPENHimalayasN
Plantago himalaica Pilg. (56,284)HPJul–AugMountain slopes and marginsHC MINEIndian subcontinentN
Plantago lanceolata L. (56,261)HPJul–AugForest thickets and edgesHC MSLCEurasia A
Plantago major L. (54,794)HPJul–AugForest margins, slopesHC MSLCHimalayasN
Wulfeniopsis amherstiana (Benth.) (54,741)HPJul–AugRock crevices and shady areasCH NPNEHimalayasN
Scrophulariaceae Juss.
Verbascum thapsus L. (57,608)HPJun–JulMountain slopesCH NPLCNorthAmericaA
Acanthaceae Juss.
Strobilanthes attenuata (Wall. ex Nees) Jacq. ex Nees (5578)HPJun–OctForest thicketsHC LPNEHimalayasN
Lamiaceae Martinov
Ajuga integrifolia Buch.–Ham. ex D.Don (54,331)HPMay–JunGrassy slopesTH MSNEHimalayasN
Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyl. (54,779)HPJul–OctWaste landsHC MINEIndia and AustraliaN
Elsholtzia fruticosa (D.Don) Rehder (57,681)HSAug–OctWastelands and forest marginsPHnnPHMINEHimalayasN
Isodon coesta (Buch.–Ham. ex D.Don) Kudo (54,553)SPSep–OctWoodland thicketsPHnnPHMINEHimalayasN
Isodon japonicus (Burm.f.) H.Hara (54,552)SPSep–OctWoodland thicketsPHnnPHMINEHimalayasN
Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd (57,629)SPJul–OctWastelands and forest scrubsPHnnPHMINEHimalayasN
Lamium album L. (54,551)HPJul–SepForest margins Shady placesTH MSLCAsiaN
Lamium amplexicaule L. (54,303)HAMar–AprForest marginsTH MSNEAsiaN
Leucas ciliata Benth. (54,780)HAJul–OctRoadsides, stream sidesTH NPNEIndiansubcontinentN
Mentha arvensis L. (56,354)HPJul–SepField margins and wastelandsGE NPLCEurasiaA
Mentha longifolia (L.) L. (56,363)HPJul–SepField margins and wastelandsGE NPLCEurasiaA
Nepeta clarkei Hook.f. (54,731)HPMay–AugWastelands, field marginsGE NPNEHimalayasN
Nepeta laevigata (D.Don) Hand.–Mazz. (55,763)HPMay–AugRoad sides, field marginsGE NPNEHimalayasN
Nepeta lamiopsis Benth. ex Hook.f. (54,766)HPApr–JunForest margins and thicketsHC MSNEHimalayasN
Origanum vulgare L. (55,745)HPJul–SepForest thicketsCH NPNEEurasiaA
Pimpinella diversifolia DC (56,394)HPAug–SepMountain scrubs and field marginsCH MSNE
Prunella vulgaris L. (57,634)HPJul–AugWaste lands CH NPNEHimalayasN
Salvia hians Royle ex Benth. (55,749)HPJul–SepAlpine thickets near stream sidesCH NPNEHimalayasN
Salvia nubicola Wall. ex Sweet (57,668)HPJul–SepGrassy slopesTH NPNEAsiaN
Thymus linearis Benth. (57,611)HPJul–AugRocky slopes HC MINEEurasiaA
Thymus serpyllum L. (57,671)HPMay–JunRocky slopes HC MILCHimalayasN
Mazaceae Reveal
Mazus pumilus (Burm.f.) Steenis (54,777)HAJul–SepGrasslands and thickets CH NPNEAfrica and AsiaA
Mazus surculosus D.Don (RRLH57685)HPJun–SepForest edges and thicketsCH NPNESouth AmericaA
Orobanchaceae Vent.
Pedicularis multiflora Pennell (54,507)HAJul–SepAlpine meadows, slopy areasGE NPNEHimalayasN
Pedicularis pectinata Wall. ex Benth. (54,540)HAJul–SepAlpine meadows, slopy areasGE MSNEEurasia and AmericaA
Pedicularis pyramidata Royle ex Benth. (54,796)HAJul–Sep Alpine meadows, slopy areasGE NPNEHimalayasN
Asterales Link
Campanulaceae Juss.
Campanula latifolia L. (57,670)HPJul–SepField margins, grassy areasCH LPNEHimalayasN
Campanula pallida Wall. (54,776)HPJul–SepForest margins and scrubsCH MSNESouthAmericaA
Codonopsis ovate Benth. (55,728)HPJul–SepAlpine thickets and scrubsCH MINENorthAmericaA
Cyananthus lobatus Wall. ex Benth. (55,736)HPJul–SepAlpine meadows and thicketsCH NPNEHimalayasN
Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
Achillea millefolium L. (55,759)HPJul–SepGrassy slopes and field marginsHC MSLCHimalayasN
Anaphalis margaritacea(L.) Benth. & Hook.f. (54,799)HPJul–SepShady areas in forestsCH NPNEHimalayas N
Anaphalis nepalensis (Spreng.) Hand–Mazz.
HPJul–SepForest margins, river banksCH NPNEEurasiaA
Anaphalis nubigena DC. (54,341)HPJul–SepForest margins, river banksCH NPNEHimalayasN
Anaphalis triplinervis Sims ex C.B.Clarke (55,792)HPJul–SepForest margins, river banksCH NPNEHimalayasN
Aster albescens (DC.) Wall. ex Hand.–Mazz. (54,546)HPJun–AugAlpine scrubs and thicketsTH MINEAsiaN
Aster flaccidus Bunge (56,293)HAJun–JulHigh alpine regionsTH MINEHimalayasN
Aster falconeri (C.B.Clarke) Hutch. (56,293)HAJun–JulHigh alpine regionsTH MINEEurasiaA
Aster himalaicus C.B.Clarke (55,730)HPJul–SepHigh grasslandsTH MINEEuropeA
Artemisia maritima L. (54,330)HPJul–SepRocky areas, wastelandCH NPNEEuropeA
Artemisia roxburghiana Besser (54,544)HPJul–SepForest slopes, waste landsCH NPNEHimalayasN
Artemisia vestita Wall. ex Besser (55,799)HPJul–SepRocky slopes, grasslandsCH NPNEEurasia AfricaA
Carduus edelbergii Rech. f. (55,704)HPJul–SepAlpine thicketsTH NPNEIndian subcontinentN
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scoop (57,612)HPApr–JunField margins, waste landsGE NPNEEuropeA
Cirsium falconeri (Hook. f.) Petr. (54,543)HPApr–JunForest scrubs, wastelandsGE NPNEHimalayasN
Dolomiaea macrocephala DC. ex Royle (55,706)HPJul–SepAlpine scrubs and thicketsCH NPNEHimalayasN
Erigeron annuus (L.) Desf. (54,718)HAJul–SepGrassy slopes and forest marginsTH MINESouthAmericaA
Erigeron bonariensis L. (57,647)HAJul–SepField margins, grassy slopesTH MINEAfricaA
Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl. ex DC.) Benth. & Hook.f. (55,754)HPJul–SepForest Thickets and scrubsTH MINEEurasiaA
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (57,648)HAJul–SepStream sidesTH NPNEAfricaA
Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet (55,780)SPJul–SepField margins, road sidesPHnnPHNPNEHimalayasN
Hippolytia longifolia (Rech.f.) C.Shih (55,703)HPJul–SepForest thickets, grassy slopesCH MSNEHimalayasN
Inula grandiflora Willd. (55,729)HPJul–SepMoist shady places in forestsCH MSNEEurasiaA
Inula royleana DC.
HPJul–SepSteam sides in high areasCH MGNEEurasiaA
Jacobaea nudicaulis (Buch.–Ham ex D.Don) B.Nord (57,640)HPAug–SepGrassy slopes and thicketsTH NPNEAsia and North AmericaN
Jurinea albescens (DC.) N.Garcia, Herrando & Susanna (55,714)HPJun–SepMountain scrubs and thicketsHC LPNEHimalayasN
Lactuca dolichophylla Kitam. (54,503)HPJune–SepField margins, road sidesTH LPNEIndian subcontinentN
Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb) Turcz. (54,528)HPApr–JunStream sides HC MGNEIndian subcontinentN
Ligularia jacquemontiana (Decne.) M.A.Rau
HPApr–JunStream sidesHC MGNEHimalayasN
Pseudog naphalium affine (D.Don) Anderb. (54,791)HPMay–JunWastelands and forest marginsTH MINENorthAmericaA
Saussurea candolleana (DC.) Sch.Bip. (55,717)HPAug–SepForest thickets, mountain scrubsCH MINEHimalayasN
Saussurea roylei (DC.) Sch.Bip. (55,781)HPAug–SepForest margins, alpine scrubsCH MSNEHimalayasN
Taraxacum officinale F.Wigg. (54,350)HPApr–JunGrasslands, forests, road sidesTH NPLCNorthAmericaA
Tussilago farfara L. (54,785)HPMar–AprForest understoriesTH MGLCAmericaA
Dipsacales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Adoxaceae E.Mey.
Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC (54,377)SPApr–JunInside forestsPHmcPHNPNEHimalayasN
Caprifoliaceae Juss.
Dipsacus inermis Wall. (55,776)HPJul–SepFiled margins, waste landsCH MINEAsiaN
Leycesteria formosa Wall. (54,715)SPApr–JunRiver sidesPHnnPHNPNEEuropeA
Lonicera obovata Royle ex Hook.f.& Thomson (54,542)SPMay–JulAlpine scrubs and thicketsPHnnPHMINEHimalayasN
Morina longifolia Wall. ex DC. (55,705)HPJul–AugAlpine scrubs ana slopesCH NPNEHimalayasN
Valeriana jatamansi Jones ex Roxb. (54,310)HPMar–AprForest thickets and marginsGE MINEHimalayasN
Valeriana pyrolifolia Decne (57,688)HPMar–AprForest thickets and marginsGE MINEHimalayasN
Apiales Nakai
Apiaceae Lindl.
Angelica glauca Edgew (54,331)HPJun–AugAlpine thickets and scrubsTH MSENIndian subcontinentN
Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. (55,719)HPJul–SepForest thickets grassy slopesCH MSNEIndian SubcontinentN
Carum carvi L. (55,778)HPJul–SepBushy alpine meadowsTH NPLCEurasiaA
Chaerophyllum reflexum Aitch. (54,797)HPJul–SepOpen forestsCH MSNEHimalayasN
Chaerophyllum villosum Wall. ex DC. (56,355)HPJul–SepField margins and forest marginsCH MSNEIndian subcontinentN
Cortia depressa (D.Don) C.Norman (55,731)HPJul–SepAlpine meadowsTH NPNEHimalayasN
Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. (55,711)HPJul–SepAlpine thickets and rocky slopesHC MSNEHimalayasN
Hymenidium brunonis (DC.) Lindl. (55,739)HPJul–SepSparse forests, forest marginsCH NPNEHimalayasN
Hymenolaena candollei DC. (55,773)HPJul–SepForest thickets and rocky scrubsCH MINEHimalayasN
Tetrataenium canescens (Lindl.) Manden. (55,756)HPAug–SepForest margins and scrubsCH MSNEAfrica and EuropeA
Araliaceae Juss
Hedera nepalensis K.Koch (54,365)SPOct–AprForest thickets PHmcPHNPNEHimalayasN
Pinales Gorozh.
Pinaceae Spreng ex E.Rudolphi
Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle (54,367)TPMar–AprAlpine regionsPHmgPHLPLCHimalayasN
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don (57,645)TPMay–JunConiferous forestsPHmgPHLPLCHimalayasN
Picea smithiana (Wall) Boiss (54,305)TPMay–JunConiferous forestsPHmgPHLPLCHimalayasN
Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jacks. (57,675)TPMar–AprConiferous forestsPHmgPHLPLCHimalayasN
Juniperus communis L. (56,251).TPSep–OctAlpine regionsPHmsPHLPLCHimalayasN
Juniperus polycarpos K.Koch (55,737)SPSep–OctAlpine regionsPHmcPHLPLCHimalayasN
Taxus wallichiana Zucc. (56,225)TPAug–DecConiferous forestsPHmgPHLPENHimalayasN
Polypodiales Link
Aspleniaceae Newman
Asplenium dalhousieae Hook. (54,334)HPOct–NovMoist shady places along rocksHC MSNEHimalayasN
Asplenium trichomanes L. (54,317)HPOct–NovMoist rocky surfacesHC MSNEHimalayasN
Pteridaceae E.D.M Kirchn
Adiantum venustum D.Don (54,367)HAJan–AprStream sides HC MINEHimalayasN
Onychium japonicum (Thumb.) Kunze (54,371)HPOct–DecMoist and damp areas CH MSNEHimalayasN
Pteris biaurita L.
HPMar–AprForest margins, rocky slopesHC NPNEHimalayasN
Pteris cretica L.
HPMar–AprForest marginsHC NPNEHimalayasN
Polypodiaceae J.Presl & C.Presl
Polystichum luctuosum (Kuntze) T.Moore (54,335)HPMar–AprMoist shady placesHC MINEHimalayasN
Equisetales DC. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Eqisetaceae Michx. ex DC.
Equisetum arvense L. (54,322)HAJan–AprField marginsGE MILCIndian subcontinentN
Selaginellales Prantl
Selaginellaceae Willk
Selaginella eurynota A.Braun (55,774)HAMar–AprMoist shady places along streamsEp NPNEHimalayasN
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MDPI and ACS Style

Surmal, O.; Singh, B.; Musarella, C.M. Understanding Species Diversity, Phenology and Environmental Implications of Different Life Forms in Coniferous Forests: A Case Study from Bhallesa Hills of Pir Panjal Mountain, Western Himalaya, India. Forests 2022, 13, 2050.

AMA Style

Surmal O, Singh B, Musarella CM. Understanding Species Diversity, Phenology and Environmental Implications of Different Life Forms in Coniferous Forests: A Case Study from Bhallesa Hills of Pir Panjal Mountain, Western Himalaya, India. Forests. 2022; 13(12):2050.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Surmal, Opender, Bikarma Singh, and Carmelo Maria Musarella. 2022. "Understanding Species Diversity, Phenology and Environmental Implications of Different Life Forms in Coniferous Forests: A Case Study from Bhallesa Hills of Pir Panjal Mountain, Western Himalaya, India" Forests 13, no. 12: 2050.

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