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Article

The Bamboo Rhizome Evolution in China Is Driven by Geographical Isolation and Trait Differentiation

1
Key Laboratory of State Forestry Administration on Forest Ecosystem Protection and Restoration of Poyang Lake Watershed, College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
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Jiulianshan National Observation and Research Station of Chinese Forest Ecosystem, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
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Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
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Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100091, China
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Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Am Kirchtor 1, 06108 Halle, Germany
7
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Puschstr 4, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Han-Jiao Gu and Can-Can Zhang contributed equally to this work.
Current address: No. 1101 Zhimin Road, Economic & Technological Development Zone, Nanchang 330045, China.
Academic Editor: Anna Katarzyna Jasinska
Forests 2021, 12(9), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091280
Received: 7 August 2021 / Revised: 8 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 18 September 2021
Plant endemic species are the result of continuous evolution under the combined action of long-term climatic and geological conditions. There are 534 bamboo species in China, and 371 endemic species account for about 70% of all bamboo species. However, little is known about the differences in the rhizome evolution rate between endemic and non-endemic bamboos. Here, we collected morphological traits (height and leaf length) and environmental variables (including climate, space, and soil) of all 534 Chinese bamboo species to determine the relative contribution of environmental factors and traits of bamboo rhizome evolution with different endemism by structural equation modeling. We found that endemic bamboo had a higher speciation rate than non-endemic bamboo. The distribution centers of sympodial bamboos are mainly located in the mountain range of southwest China, while amphipodial and monopodial bamboos are distributed with higher latitude farther east in China. The height of non-endemic sympodial and monopodial bamboos was significantly higher than endemic sympodial and monopodial bamboos. The leaf length of non-endemic sympodial bamboos was significantly higher than endemic sympodial bamboo, while the leaf length of non-endemic amphipodial bamboo was significantly lower than endemic amphipodial bamboo. Environmental factors and traits explain 47% of the evolutionary variation of non-endemic bamboo species, while they explain 17% of that of endemic bamboo species. Longitude, latitude, and leaf length were the critical factors in the rhizome evolution of non-endemic bamboo, while longitude and height were the critical factors in the rhizome evolution of endemic bamboo. Our results imply that for higher species formation rates, endemic bamboo should be more concerned than non-endemic bamboo in the process of bamboo rhizome evolution. It will likely appear that new non-endemic bamboo species have a short leaf length in higher latitude and farther east in China (the lower Yangtze plain), as well as new endemic bamboo species with a low height farther east in China (the Wuyi Mountains). Meanwhile, ancient non-endemic bamboo with a long leaf length in Yunnan Province and ancient endemic bamboo with a high height in the Hengduan Mountains may be more likely to become extinct. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the difference in the rhizome evolution of endemic and non-endemic bamboos, which provides new insights into the conservation of Chinese bamboo biodiversity. View Full-Text
Keywords: bamboo; endemism; rhizome evolution rate; latitude; longitude; trait differentiation bamboo; endemism; rhizome evolution rate; latitude; longitude; trait differentiation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, H.-J.; Zhang, C.-C.; Chen, F.-S.; Huang, J.-H.; Wang, J.-S.; Bruelheide, H.; Trogisch, S.; Fang, X.-M.; Li, J.-J.; Bu, W.-S. The Bamboo Rhizome Evolution in China Is Driven by Geographical Isolation and Trait Differentiation. Forests 2021, 12, 1280. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091280

AMA Style

Gu H-J, Zhang C-C, Chen F-S, Huang J-H, Wang J-S, Bruelheide H, Trogisch S, Fang X-M, Li J-J, Bu W-S. The Bamboo Rhizome Evolution in China Is Driven by Geographical Isolation and Trait Differentiation. Forests. 2021; 12(9):1280. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091280

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gu, Han-Jiao, Can-Can Zhang, Fu-Sheng Chen, Ji-Hong Huang, Jin-Song Wang, Helge Bruelheide, Stefan Trogisch, Xiang-Min Fang, Jian-Jun Li, and Wen-Sheng Bu. 2021. "The Bamboo Rhizome Evolution in China Is Driven by Geographical Isolation and Trait Differentiation" Forests 12, no. 9: 1280. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091280

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