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Systematic Review

The Importance of Time-Saving as a Factor in Transitioning from Woodfuel to Modern Cooking Energy Services: A Systematic Map

1
Oxford Systematic Reviews LLP, Oxford OX2 7DL, UK
2
Long-Term Ecology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SZ, UK
3
School of Archaeology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK
4
Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, H91 TK33 Galway, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Blas Mola-Yudego
Forests 2021, 12(9), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091149
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
Over half of the world’s population lack access to modern energy cooking services (MECS) and instead rely on locally harvested biomass for fuel. The collection and burning of such biomass for cooking have significant negative social, health, economic and environmental impacts and is a major sustainability challenge. The adverse development impacts from households’ continued dependence on polluting stove-and-fuel combinations are significant. Household Air Pollution (HAP) from biomass fuel use accounts for some 4.3 million premature deaths each year, disproportionately affecting women and children. Fuel harvesting and use represent a significant time burden for women and girls. Time savings can be realized through multiple pathways. Understanding the importance of timesaving as a factor in the adoption of clean cooking is thus important in informing the design of cookstove programs and their marketing approach. The systematic evidence evaluation of drivers of and barriers to adoption of modern energy systems undertaken for the World Bank’s Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) was further analysed to create a systematic map of evidence relating to time-saving attributable to the adoption of modern energy systems by traditional fuel users. The umbrella ESMAP evaluation comprised 160 studies, of which 48 are relevant to the current systematic map. Time-saving was gained from (i) a switch from collection to buying fuel; (ii) urban market utilization; (iii) reducing collected fuel quantity; (iv) reducing the distance to fuel collection sites; (v) and reductions of meal preparation time were found as the key drivers/enablers of cleaner energy adoption across the evidence base. Perceptions and recognition of the time-saving benefits of cleaner fuel adoption across studies were reported to be understood for: (i) fuel efficiency; (ii) fuel collection time; (iii) buying fuelwood; and (iv) better household economics. Relatively few studies report on what the time saved was used for; however, those that do investigate timesaving use found that additional time was used for: (i) additional income generation; (ii) professional development; (iii) more cooking (iv) other domestic activities (e.g., learning to sew); (v) eating out; and (vi) leisure activities. While many studies speculate that time is taken away from education, none state that saved time was used for education, beyond employment opportunities or overarching claims of professional development. View Full-Text
Keywords: systematic map; wood fuel; modern cooking energy services; gender; time-saving systematic map; wood fuel; modern cooking energy services; gender; time-saving
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petrokofsky, G.; Harvey, W.J.; Petrokofsky, L.; Ochieng, C.A. The Importance of Time-Saving as a Factor in Transitioning from Woodfuel to Modern Cooking Energy Services: A Systematic Map. Forests 2021, 12, 1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091149

AMA Style

Petrokofsky G, Harvey WJ, Petrokofsky L, Ochieng CA. The Importance of Time-Saving as a Factor in Transitioning from Woodfuel to Modern Cooking Energy Services: A Systematic Map. Forests. 2021; 12(9):1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petrokofsky, Gilian, William J. Harvey, Leo Petrokofsky, and Caroline A. Ochieng. 2021. "The Importance of Time-Saving as a Factor in Transitioning from Woodfuel to Modern Cooking Energy Services: A Systematic Map" Forests 12, no. 9: 1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091149

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