Tree biomass and the diversity relationship in mixed forest have an impact on forest ecosystem services provisions. Tree biomass yield is driven by several aspects such as species identity, site condition, stand density, tree age and tree diversity expressed as species mingling and structural diversity. By comparing diverse degrees of tree mixtures in natural forests, we can gain insight into the ecosystem services provision level and dynamic. Two monitoring sites in the Castilian Northern Plateau (Spain) have been analyzed to disentangle the relationships between biodiversity levels and tree biomass yield. Two permanent one hectare (ha) squared plots were established at Llano de San Marugán and Valdepoza. In each plot, all individual trees were measured (diameter and height), georeferenced and its species identity defined. Tree species in the two sites were Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Pinus pinea, Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea
and Juniperus thurifera
. From these datasets, ten diversity indices that fall in three categories (species richness indices, species compositional/mingling indices and vertical structural indices) were used as predictor variables to fit several candidate models. By merging the trees by site (without considering the species identity) selected models include individual tree basal area as an explanatory variable combining by addition or interaction with diversity indices. When species are analyzed independently, structural diversity impacts on biomass yield in combination (additive or multiplicative) with tree size is negative for Pinus nigra
and positive for the other species.
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