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Article

Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts Associated with Mites Phoretic on Ips typographus in Eastern Finland

1
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland
2
School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland
3
UPM Kymmene Forestry and Wood Processing, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
4
Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
5
Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0083, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicola Luchi
Forests 2021, 12(6), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060743
Received: 1 May 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 4 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Host – Microbial Interactions)
The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) has become a major forest pest in Finland in recent years. The beetle is a well-known vector of mainly ophiostomatoid fungi causing blue-stain of timber and pathogens that have the ability to amplify the insect damage. It also vectors other associated organisms, such as phoretic mites. The ecology of these mites remains poorly understood, including their associations with fungi. In this study, we considered filamentous fungi and yeasts associated with mites phoretic on I. typographus. Fungal identifications were based on DNA sequences and phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and/or partial β-tubulin gene regions. Fifteen fungal species were detected, including eight yeasts and seven filamentous fungi. Eleven percent of the beetles carried mites and of these 74% carried at least one fungal species. An average of two fungal species were carried per mite. The most commonly found filamentous fungi were Grosmannia penicillata (25%), Ophiostoma bicolor (19%), O. ainoae (12%) and O. brunneolum (12%). Of the yeast species, the most commonly found was Wickerhamomyces bisporus (47%). This study is the first to report yeasts associated with I. typographus and its phoretic mites in Finland. Majority of the filamentous fungal species found are those previously reported in association with I. typographus. The results also confirmed that many of the fungal species commonly found on I. typographus are also associated with its phoretic mites. However, the nature of the symbiosis between the mites, beetles and fungal associates remains to be understood. View Full-Text
Keywords: boreal forests; fungal diversity; insect-fungus symbiosis; ophiostomatoid fungi; spruce bark beetle; yeasts boreal forests; fungal diversity; insect-fungus symbiosis; ophiostomatoid fungi; spruce bark beetle; yeasts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Linnakoski, R.; Lasarov, I.; Veteli, P.; Tikkanen, O.-P.; Viiri, H.; Jyske, T.; Kasanen, R.; Duong, T.A.; Wingfield, M.J. Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts Associated with Mites Phoretic on Ips typographus in Eastern Finland. Forests 2021, 12, 743. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060743

AMA Style

Linnakoski R, Lasarov I, Veteli P, Tikkanen O-P, Viiri H, Jyske T, Kasanen R, Duong TA, Wingfield MJ. Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts Associated with Mites Phoretic on Ips typographus in Eastern Finland. Forests. 2021; 12(6):743. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060743

Chicago/Turabian Style

Linnakoski, Riikka; Lasarov, Ilmeini; Veteli, Pyry; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Viiri, Heli; Jyske, Tuula; Kasanen, Risto; Duong, Tuan A.; Wingfield, Michael J. 2021. "Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts Associated with Mites Phoretic on Ips typographus in Eastern Finland" Forests 12, no. 6: 743. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060743

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