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Article

Effect of Temperature and Exposure Time on Cambium Cell Viability In Vitro for Eucalyptus Species

School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick, VIC 3363, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Claudia Cocozza
Forests 2021, 12(4), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040445
Received: 12 February 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 4 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
(1) Research Highlights: Thermal damage to cambium cells of Eucalyptus held in vitro was recorded at sublethal temperatures (40 °C–50 °C) when the duration of exposure extends beyond 2.5 min up to 5 min. (2) Background and Objectives: During a forest fire, heat can be transferred through tree bark potentially impacting viability of vascular cambium cells and the perennial growth of the tree. With the increased temperature of the cambium, cells are known to lose viability at temperatures exceeding 60 °C. However, it is possible that extended exposure to temperatures below 60 °C may also impair cell viability. This study aimed to identify the effect of the temperature and exposure time interaction on the cambium cell viability of Eucalyptus, a genus widely distributed in natural forests and commercial plantations globally. (3) Methods: Excised cambium-phloem tissue sections from three Eucalyptus species (Messmate–E. obliqua L’Hér., Narrow-leaf peppermint–E. radiata Sieber ex DC. and Swamp gum–E. ovata Labill.) were exposed in vitro to a series of temperature–time treatments (40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C for 1 min, 2.5 min, and 5 min) and tested for cell viability using a tetrazolium reduction method. (4) Results: Cell viability of cambium cells decreased with increased temperature and exposure times for all three Eucalyptus species. Longer exposure to sublethal temperatures of 40 °C to 50 °C showed statistically similar results to shorter exposure to lethal temperatures (>50 °C). (5) Conclusions: Longer exposure to sublethal temperatures (40 °C–50 °C) caused irreversible thermal damage to cambium cells of Eucalyptus when tested in vitro, further refining our understanding of raised temperature on cell viability. View Full-Text
Keywords: exposure time; Eucalyptus; E. obliqua; E. ovata; E. radiata; forest fires; lethal temperatures; sublethal temperatures; vascular cambium exposure time; Eucalyptus; E. obliqua; E. ovata; E. radiata; forest fires; lethal temperatures; sublethal temperatures; vascular cambium
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.4536497
    Link: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4536497
    Description: Figure S1: Microscopic image of a cross section of a stained secondary phloem tissue of E. obliqua. CM-cambium, DC- dead cell, FC-false live cell, LC-live cell, PF-phloem fibres, PS-phloem sieve tube, Figure S2: Standard absorbance curve for 1,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium formazan at 20°C, Figure S3: Closed circles indicate the average Cell Viability Index (CVI ) values of all species for each treatment combination. Error bar indicates the standard error of mean at 95% confidence interval. Different lower case (in bold) letters adjacent to each closed circle indicates the significant difference tested for the average of log transformed CVI values of each treatment combination, Figure S4: Closed circles indicate the average Cell Viability Index (CVI) values of all species treated at 60°C for 1 minute, 2.5 minutes and 5 minutes in the Neutral Red method. Error bar indicates the standard error of mean at 95% confidence interval. Different lower case (in bold) letters adjacent to each closed circle indicates the significant difference tested for the average of log transformed CVI values of each treatment combination, Table S1: Tree data of the three Eucalyptus species, Appendix A: Neutral Red Method
MDPI and ACS Style

Subasinghe Achchige, Y.M.; Volkova, L.; Weston, C.J. Effect of Temperature and Exposure Time on Cambium Cell Viability In Vitro for Eucalyptus Species. Forests 2021, 12, 445. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040445

AMA Style

Subasinghe Achchige YM, Volkova L, Weston CJ. Effect of Temperature and Exposure Time on Cambium Cell Viability In Vitro for Eucalyptus Species. Forests. 2021; 12(4):445. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040445

Chicago/Turabian Style

Subasinghe Achchige, Yasika M., Liubov Volkova, and Christopher J. Weston 2021. "Effect of Temperature and Exposure Time on Cambium Cell Viability In Vitro for Eucalyptus Species" Forests 12, no. 4: 445. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040445

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