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Article

Responses of Swamp Cypress (Taxodium distichum) and Chinese Willow (Salix matsudana) Roots to Periodic Submergence in Mega-Reservoir: Changes in Organic Acid Concentration

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Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Ecology and Resources Research in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, TianSheng Road, Chongqing 400715, China
2
Dongguan Hanlin Experimental School, Dongguan 523000, China
3
Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081, China
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Punjab Forest Department, Government of Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Montagnoli
Forests 2021, 12(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020203
Received: 3 December 2020 / Revised: 5 February 2021 / Accepted: 6 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Root System to Environment)
Organic acids are critical as secondary metabolites for plant adaption in a stressful situation. Oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and malic acid can improve plant tolerance under waterlogged conditions. Two prominent woody species (Taxodium distichum-Swamp cypress and Salix matsudana-Chinese willow) have been experiencing long-term winter submergence and summer drought in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The objectives of the present study were to explore the responses of the roots of two woody species during flooding as reflected by root tissue concentrations of organic acids. Potted sample plants were randomly divided into three treatment groups: control, moderate submergence, and deep submergence. The concentrations of oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and malic acid in the main root and lateral roots of the two species were determined at four stages. The results showed that T. distichum and S. matsudana adapted well to the water regimes of the reservoir, with a survival rate of 100% during the experiment period. After experiencing a cycle of submergence and emergence, the height and base diameter of the two species showed increasing trends. Changes in base diameter showed insignificant differences between submergence treatments, and only height was significant under deep submergence. The concentrations of three organic acids in the roots of two species were influenced by winter submergence. After emergence in spring, two species could adjust their organic acid metabolisms to the normal level. Among three organic acids, tartaric acid showed the most sensitive response to water submergence, which deserved more studies in the future. The exotic species, T. distichum, had a more stable metabolism of organic acids to winter flooding. However, the native species, S. matsudana, responded more actively to long-term winter flooding. Both species can be considered in vegetation restoration, but it needs more observations for planting around 165 m above sea level, where winter submergence is more than 200 days. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydro-fluctuation zone; Three Gorges Dam Reservoir; winter submergence; Taxodium distichum; Salix matsudana; organic acids hydro-fluctuation zone; Three Gorges Dam Reservoir; winter submergence; Taxodium distichum; Salix matsudana; organic acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, X.; Wang, T.; Wu, K.; Wang, P.; Qi, Y.; Arif, M.; Wei, H. Responses of Swamp Cypress (Taxodium distichum) and Chinese Willow (Salix matsudana) Roots to Periodic Submergence in Mega-Reservoir: Changes in Organic Acid Concentration. Forests 2021, 12, 203. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020203

AMA Style

He X, Wang T, Wu K, Wang P, Qi Y, Arif M, Wei H. Responses of Swamp Cypress (Taxodium distichum) and Chinese Willow (Salix matsudana) Roots to Periodic Submergence in Mega-Reservoir: Changes in Organic Acid Concentration. Forests. 2021; 12(2):203. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020203

Chicago/Turabian Style

He, Xinrui, Ting Wang, Kejun Wu, Peng Wang, Yuancai Qi, Muhammad Arif, and Hong Wei. 2021. "Responses of Swamp Cypress (Taxodium distichum) and Chinese Willow (Salix matsudana) Roots to Periodic Submergence in Mega-Reservoir: Changes in Organic Acid Concentration" Forests 12, no. 2: 203. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020203

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