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Article

Physiological and Structural Aspects of In Vitro Somatic Embryogenesis in Abies alba Mill

1
Plant Science and Biodiversity Center, Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology, Akademicka 2, 950 07 Nitra, Slovakia
2
Laboratory of Tropical Crop Improvement, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 42, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3
Alliance of Bioversity International and CIAT, c/o KU Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 42, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
4
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), C/o The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST), P.O. Box, Arusha 447, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(11), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111210
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 13 November 2020 / Published: 17 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Tissue Culture in Plant Reproduction)
Initiation of somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos, long-term maintenance of embryogenic tissue in vitro or by cryopreservation, as well as maturation, of somatic embryos of Abies alba Mill. are reported in this study. For the initiation of embryogenic tissues, a DCR medium containing different types of cytokinins (1 mg.L−1) were tested. During three consecutive years, 61 cell lines were initiated out of 1308 explants, with initiation frequencies ranging between 0.83 and 13.33%. The type of cytokinin had no profound effect on the initiation frequency within one given year. Microscopic observations revealed presence of bipolar somatic embryos in all initiated embryogenic tissues. Besides the typical bipolar somatic embryos, huge polyembryonal complexes, as well as “twin” embryos, were observed. Maturation of somatic embryos occurred on a DCR medium supplemented by abscisic acid (10 mg.L−1), polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000, 7.5%) and 3% maltose. The maturation capacity was cell-line dependent. All of the four tested cell lines produced cotyledonary somatic embryos, though at different quantities, of 16 to 252 per g of fresh weight. After germination, seedlings developed, but their further growth soon stopped after the formation of a resting bud. Altogether, seven cell lines were cryopreserved, using the slow-freezing technique. After rewarming, all tested cell lines showed regrowth rates between 81.8 and 100%. View Full-Text
Keywords: cryopreservation; cytokinins; cytology; silver fir cryopreservation; cytokinins; cytology; silver fir
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salaj, T.; Klubicová, K.; Panis, B.; Swennen, R.; Salaj, J. Physiological and Structural Aspects of In Vitro Somatic Embryogenesis in Abies alba Mill. Forests 2020, 11, 1210. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111210

AMA Style

Salaj T, Klubicová K, Panis B, Swennen R, Salaj J. Physiological and Structural Aspects of In Vitro Somatic Embryogenesis in Abies alba Mill. Forests. 2020; 11(11):1210. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111210

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salaj, Terezia; Klubicová, Katarina; Panis, Bart; Swennen, Rony; Salaj, Jan. 2020. "Physiological and Structural Aspects of In Vitro Somatic Embryogenesis in Abies alba Mill" Forests 11, no. 11: 1210. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111210

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