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Open AccessArticle

Towards Eradication of Phytophthora cinnamomi Using a Fallow Approach in a Mediterranean Climate

1
Phytophthora Science and Management, Centre for Climate Impacted Terrestrial Ecosystems, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
2
Alcoa of Australia, Pinjarra, WA 6208, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is in memory of Dr. Ian Colquhoun (I.C.) who passed away in 2015. He was a huge advocate of Phytophthora science and management in Australia for over 25 years. He worked tirelessly with industry, universities, government and non-government agencies, and community groups. His ability to bring people together to achieve common goals aimed at the management of Phytophthora was legendary. He was a primary instigator of the research outlined in this paper, both in the research objectives and obtaining funding support. He is fondly remembered by many friends he made across Australia and world-wide.
Forests 2020, 11(10), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101101
Received: 11 September 2020 / Revised: 30 September 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
While eradication from haul roads was achieved, more work is required to eradicate P. cinnamomi from stockpiles and bunds. We can now implement different management strategies to the construction of bunds and stockpiles to facilitate eradication. Infestation by Phytophthora cinnamomi results in large financial and management constraints to environmental managers. This pathogen was considered impossible to eradicate until recent success with treatments including host removal, herbicide and fungicide application, soil fumigation and physical root barriers. We investigated the most benign of these treatments; keeping the area devoid of living host material. In a Western Australian mine site within a Mediterranean climate, haul roads, stockpiles and roadside bunds had P. cinnamomi colonised Pinus stem plugs buried at multiple depths. Over time, we examined the effects of soil moisture and temperature in different soil conditions and types to compare the recovery of the pathogen. Results: Within 12 months, the pathogen could not be recovered from the haul roads. In the stockpiles, depth produced significantly different results. In 3 of the 4 sites, the pathogen was not recovered at 10 cm after 20 months. By 12 months, at 50 cm, there was an 80% reduction in recovery, but only one stockpile had no recovery from 50 cm, which occurred by 36 months. Bunds were up to 1.75 m high and had variable results for plugs buried at 30 cm, influenced by height, the types of soils and shading. One of the smallest bunds was the only bund where the pathogen was not recoverable (by 22 months). This study provides strong support for using a fallow period to reduce or eliminate P. cinnamomi inoculum. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil matric potential; pathogen survival; host elimination; soil temperature; soil moisture; host removal soil matric potential; pathogen survival; host elimination; soil temperature; soil moisture; host removal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dunstan, W.A.; Howard, K.; Grigg, A.; Shaw, C.; Burgess, T.I.; Hardy, G.E.S.J. Towards Eradication of Phytophthora cinnamomi Using a Fallow Approach in a Mediterranean Climate. Forests 2020, 11, 1101.

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