Forests fulfill important ecological functions by sustaining nutrient cycles and providing habitats for a multitude of organisms. They further deliver ecosystem services such as carbon storage, protection from erosion, and wood as an important commodity. Trees have to cope in their environment with a multitude of natural and anthropogenic forms of stress. Resilience and resistance mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses are of special importance for long-lived tree species. Since trees exist for many decades or even centuries on the same spot, they have to acclimate their growth and reproduction to constantly changing atmospheric and pedospheric conditions. In this special issue, we invited contributions addressing the physiological responses of forest trees to a wide array of different stress factors. Among the eighteen papers published, seventeen covered drought or salt stress as major environmental cues, highlighting the relevance of this topic in times of climate change. Only one paper studied cold stress [1
]. The dominance of drought and salt stress studies underpins the need to understand tree responses to these environmental threats from the molecular to the ecophysiological level. The papers contributing to this Special Issue cover these scientific aspects in different areas of the globe and encompass conifers as well as broadleaf tree species. In addition, two studies deal with bamboo (Phyllostachys
]). Bamboo, although botanically belonging to grasses, was included because its ecological functions and applications are similar to those of trees.
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