Next Article in Journal
Changes in Major Insect Pests of Pine Forests in Korea Over the Last 50 Years
Previous Article in Journal
A Geospatial Decision Support System Tool for Supporting Integrated Forest Knowledge at the Landscape Scale
Previous Article in Special Issue
National Forest Parks in China: Origin, Evolution, and Sustainable Development
Open AccessArticle

Farmers’ Willingness to Accept Compensation to Maintain the Benefits of Urban Forests

College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
Department of Bioresource Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123, China
College of Social Development and Public Administration, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
Gansu Engineering Research Center of Land Utilization and Comprehension Consolidation, Lanzhou 730070, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(8), 691;
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of the Urban Forest under Global Change)
The Returning Farmland to Forest Program (RFFP) was implemented in China in 1999 with the goal of supporting environmental restoration by returning significant areas of cultivated land to forest. While afforestation supports long-term ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and the reduction of soil and water loss, it also reduces the amount of available arable land, putting financial pressure on those who depend on it for their livelihoods. In an effort to balance both ecological and economic benefits, regional governments offer financial compensation to farmers to offset these pressures in the form of a dollar amount per hectare of reforested land. The current study explores participants’ willingness to accept pay (WTA), along with the difference between the offered per hectare compensation and the amount deemed acceptable by RFFP participants in the region. To this end, 92 households from the representative afforestation area were surveyed in Huining County, Gansu Province, China - an area of strategic ecological importance in the Loess Plateau. The results showed 12.0% of the surveyed respondents to be satisfied with the current compensation policy, while 88.0% of respondents were not. The respondents’ lower and upper WTA limits were $221/ha/year and $1331/ha/year, respectively, with an average WTA of $777/ha/year. The compensation that respondents would be most willing to accept was distributed in the $444–888/ha/year and the $889–1331/ha/year ranges, accounting for 37.0% and 31.5% of the total responses, respectively. Gender, age, and education were found to be the main factors influencing a respondents’ WTA. Results of the survey suggest that the actual compensation amount ($355/ha/year) is much lower than respondents’ WTA, and that compensation measures and policies should be improved to guarantee a basic income. View Full-Text
Keywords: willingness to accept pay; afforestation; rural development; ecological benefits; economic benefits willingness to accept pay; afforestation; rural development; ecological benefits; economic benefits
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Adamowski, J.F.; Wang, G.; Cao, J.; Zhu, G.; Zhou, J.; Liu, C.; Dong, X. Farmers’ Willingness to Accept Compensation to Maintain the Benefits of Urban Forests. Forests 2019, 10, 691.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop