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The Effect of Season of the Year on the Frequency and Degree of Damage during Commercial Thinning in Black Alder Stands in Poland

1
Faculty of Forestry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
2
Płaska Forest District, Sucha Rzeczka 60, 16-326 Płaska, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(8), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10080668
Received: 7 July 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of season of the year on the frequency and degree of damage to residual trees caused during winter and summer timber harvesting operations in young alder stands. Analyses were conducted in pure black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) stands aged 38 and 40 years, located in north-eastern Poland. Chainsaw logging was performed in the cut-to-length (CTL) system, while timber was extracted using an agricultural tractor with a trailer with manual timber loading and unloading. Damage caused in the stand as a result of early thinning operations was evaluated in terms of: (1) damage location, (2) wound size, (3) wound depth, and (4) the distance of the damaged tree from the skid trail. Timber harvesting caused damage in 8.3% of trees remaining in the stand. Both the total number of damaged trees (p = 0.001) and the number of trees damaged during felling (p = 0.01) and extraction of timber (p < 0.001) were greater in summer than in winter. Irrespective of the season, two-thirds of all cases of damage were caused during timber extraction, with 67.7% of damage recorded on trunks or root collars and 32.3% on roots. Irrespective of the season and the technological operation, slightly over 50% of cases of damage were small wounds of max. 10 cm2. The proportions of medium-sized wounds (11–100 cm2) and large wounds (over 100 cm2) were comparable. The majority of damaged trees (85.1%) were found in the vicinity (<1 m) of the skid trails. The frequency of tree damage near the skid trail was twice as large in summer as in winter (p < 0.001). View Full-Text
Keywords: Alnus glutinosa; residual stand; logging damage; thinning; season of timber harvesting Alnus glutinosa; residual stand; logging damage; thinning; season of timber harvesting
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Grzywiński, W.; Turowski, R.; Naskrent, B.; Jelonek, T.; Tomczak, A. The Effect of Season of the Year on the Frequency and Degree of Damage during Commercial Thinning in Black Alder Stands in Poland. Forests 2019, 10, 668.

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