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The Importance of Moisture for Brown Rot Degradation of Modified Wood: A Critical Discussion

1
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Box 857, SE-501 15 Borås, Sweden
2
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), P.O. Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway
3
Technical University of Munich, Chair of Wood Science, Winzererstrasse 45, D-80797 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(6), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10060522
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood-Moisture Relations)
The effect of wood modification on wood-water interactions in modified wood is poorly understood, even though water is a critical factor in fungal wood degradation. A previous review suggested that decay resistance in modified wood is caused by a reduced wood moisture content (MC) that inhibits the diffusion of oxidative fungal metabolites. It has been reported that a MC below 23%–25% will protect wood from decay, which correlates with the weight percent gain (WPG) level seen to inhibit decay in modified wood for several different kinds of wood modifications. In this review, the focus is on the role of water in brown rot decay of chemically and thermally modified wood. The study synthesizes recent advances in the inhibition of decay and the effects of wood modification on the MC and moisture relationships in modified wood. We discuss three potential mechanisms for diffusion inhibition in modified wood: (i) nanopore blocking; (ii) capillary condensation in nanopores; and (iii) plasticization of hemicelluloses. The nanopore blocking theory works well with cell wall bulking and crosslinking modifications, but it seems less applicable to thermal modification, which may increase nanoporosity. Preventing the formation of capillary water in nanopores also explains cell wall bulking modification well. However, the possibility of increased nanoporosity in thermally modified wood and increased wood-water surface tension for 1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) modification complicate the interpretation of this theory for these modifications. Inhibition of hemicellulose plasticization fits well with diffusion prevention in acetylated, DMDHEU and thermally modified wood, but plasticity in furfurylated wood may be increased. We also point out that the different mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and it may be the case that they all play some role to varying degrees for each modification. Furthermore, we highlight recent work which shows that brown rot fungi will eventually degrade modified wood materials, even at high treatment levels. The herein reviewed literature suggests that the modification itself may initially be degraded, followed by an increase in wood cell wall MC to a level where chemical transport is possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: wood water relationships; moisture content; diffusion; porosity; furfurylation; acetylation; thermal modification; brown rot fungi; capillary condensation; hemicellulose plasticization wood water relationships; moisture content; diffusion; porosity; furfurylation; acetylation; thermal modification; brown rot fungi; capillary condensation; hemicellulose plasticization
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Ringman, R.; Beck, G.; Pilgård, A. The Importance of Moisture for Brown Rot Degradation of Modified Wood: A Critical Discussion. Forests 2019, 10, 522.

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