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Article

Impact of Large-Scale Afforestation on Surface Temperature: A Case Study in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia Based on the WRF Model

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State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
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Yale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
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Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
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River and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 1138654, Japan
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National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China
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Division of Ocean Science and Technology, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(5), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050368
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Inventory, Modeling and Remote Sensing)
Afforestation activities in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia, China, have substantially increased tree and shrub coverage in this region. In this study, the response of the surface temperature to afforestation is simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The surface temperature changes are decomposed into contributions from the intrinsic surface biophysical effect and atmospheric feedback, using the theory of intrinsic biophysical mechanism. The effect of afforestation on the surface temperature is 1.34 K, −0.48 K, 2.09 K and 0.22 K for the summer daytime, the summer nighttime, the winter daytime and the winter nighttime, respectively, for the grid cells that have experienced conversion from bare soil to shrub. The corresponding domain mean values are 0.15 K, −0.2 K, 0.67 K, and 0.06 K. The seasonal variation of surface temperature change is mainly caused by changes in roughness and Bowen ratio. In the daytime, the surface temperature changes are dominated by the biophysical effect, with albedo change being the main biophysical factor. In the nighttime, the biophysical effect (mainly associated with roughness change) and the atmospheric feedback (mainly associated with change in the background air temperature) contribute similar amounts to the surface temperature changes. We conclude that the atmospheric feedback can amplify the influence of the surface biophysical effect, especially in the nighttime. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface temperature; biophysical effect; atmospheric feedback; WRF surface temperature; biophysical effect; atmospheric feedback; WRF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Lee, X.; Feng, D.; Fu, C.; Wei, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yin, Y.; Luo, Y.; Lin, G. Impact of Large-Scale Afforestation on Surface Temperature: A Case Study in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia Based on the WRF Model. Forests 2019, 10, 368. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050368

AMA Style

Wang L, Lee X, Feng D, Fu C, Wei Z, Yang Y, Yin Y, Luo Y, Lin G. Impact of Large-Scale Afforestation on Surface Temperature: A Case Study in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia Based on the WRF Model. Forests. 2019; 10(5):368. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Liming, Xuhui Lee, Duole Feng, Congsheng Fu, Zhongwang Wei, Yanzheng Yang, Yizhou Yin, Yong Luo, and Guanghui Lin. 2019. "Impact of Large-Scale Afforestation on Surface Temperature: A Case Study in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia Based on the WRF Model" Forests 10, no. 5: 368. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050368

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