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The Concept of Landscape Structure, Forest Continuum and Connectivity as a Support in Urban Forest Management and Landscape Planning
Article

Effects of Spatial Pattern of Forest Vegetation on Urban Cooling in a Compact Megacity

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University; 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing 210037, China
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Forests 2019, 10(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030282
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Optimization of Urban and Peri-urban Forests)
Urban forests can be an effective contributor to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Understanding the factors that influence the cooling intensity of forest vegetation is essential for creating a more effective urban greenspace network to better counteract the urban warming. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of spatial patterns of forest vegetation on urban cooling, in the Shanghai metropolitan area of China, using correlation analyses and regression models. Cooling intensity values were calculated based on the land surface temperature (LST) derived from remote sensing imagery and spatial patterns of forest vegetation were quantified by eight landscape metrics, using standard and moving-window approaches. The results suggested that 90 m × 90 m was the optimal spatial scale for studying the cooling effect of forest vegetation in Shanghai’s urban area. It also indicated that woodland performed better than grassland in urban cooling and the size, shape, and spatial distribution of woodland patches had significant impacts on the urban thermal environment. Specifically, the increase of size and the degree of compactness of the patch shape can effectively reduce the LST within the woodland. Areas with a higher percentage of vegetation coverage experienced a greater cooling effect. Moreover, when given a fixed amount of vegetation covers, aggregated distribution provided a stronger cooling effect than fragmented distribution and increasing overall shape complexity of woodlands can enhance the cooling effect on surrounding urban areas. This study provides insights for urban planners and landscape designers to create forest adaptive planning strategies to effectively alleviate the UHI effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooling effect; urban forest; landscape metrics; urban heat island cooling effect; urban forest; landscape metrics; urban heat island
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, W.; Cao, F.; Wang, G. Effects of Spatial Pattern of Forest Vegetation on Urban Cooling in a Compact Megacity. Forests 2019, 10, 282. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030282

AMA Style

Zhou W, Cao F, Wang G. Effects of Spatial Pattern of Forest Vegetation on Urban Cooling in a Compact Megacity. Forests. 2019; 10(3):282. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030282

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Wen, Fuliang Cao, and Guibin Wang. 2019. "Effects of Spatial Pattern of Forest Vegetation on Urban Cooling in a Compact Megacity" Forests 10, no. 3: 282. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030282

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