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Pine Pitch Canker (PPC): Pathways of Pathogen Spread and Preventive Measures

Department of Vegetal Production and Forest Resources, University of Valladolid, Av Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid—INIA, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O.Box 49, 23053 Alnarp, Sweden
Faculty of Forestry, Institute for Dehesa Research (INDEHESA), University of Extremadura, Avenida Virgen del Puerto 2, 10600 Plasencia, Spain
Bioforest S.A., Km. 12, Camino a Coronel, 403 0000 Concepcion, Chile
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Università degli Studi di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 18, 50144 Firenze, Italy
Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
Depertment of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 61300 Brno, Česko
Forest Research Centre (CIFOR), National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA), Ctra. La Coruña Km. 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Agroforestry Sciences, University of Valladolid, Av Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
Department of Agriculture, Forest and Food Sciences, University of Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
ANSES Plant Health Laboratory, Unit of mycology, Domaine de Pixérécourt, Bât. E., 54220 Malzéville, France
Institute of Botany, Nature Research Centre, Laboratory of Mycology, Žaliųjų Ežerų Str. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania
Centre Tecnològic Forestal de Catalunya, Crta. de St. Llorenç de Morunys Km. 2, 25280 Solsona, Spain
Faculty of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Wóycickiego 1/3 Street, 01-938 Warsaw, Poland
Forest Protection Department, Institute of Forest Research, Braci Leśnej 3, 05-090 Sekocin Stary, Poland
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection-C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto fiorentino, Italy
Department of Natural Resources, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(12), 1158;
Received: 3 November 2019 / Revised: 5 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 17 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Fusarium circinatum (Nirenberg and O’ Donnell) is the causal agent of pine pitch canker (PPC) disease, one of the most devastating forest diseases worldwide. Long-distance spread occurs mainly through the movement of infected seeds whereas at regional level, the movement of seedlings, substrates, or containers may play an important role in fungal dispersal. Invasion of nurseries takes place via infected seeds and further spread can occur by planting contaminated seedlings, especially due to the possibility of infected plants remaining symptomless. Once established, F. circinatum spreads by rain, wind, and insects. The natural spread of the pathogen is limited due to the short dispersal distances of the spores and the fairly short flight distances of disseminating insects. In this review, we summarize the currently known dispersal pathways of the pathogen, discussing both natural and human-assisted processes. With the purpose of understanding how to best intervene in the disease’s development in nurseries and forests, we outline the epidemiology of the pathogen describing the key factors influencing its spread. Preventive measures to control the spread of F. circinatum locally and globally are described with special emphasis on the challenges in implementing them. View Full-Text
Keywords: pine pitch canker; Fusarium circinatum; dispersion; invasive species; environmentally friendly management pine pitch canker; Fusarium circinatum; dispersion; invasive species; environmentally friendly management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zamora-Ballesteros, C.; Diez, J.J.; Martín-García, J.; Witzell, J.; Solla, A.; Ahumada, R.; Capretti, P.; Cleary, M.; Drenkhan, R.; Dvořák, M.; Elvira-Recuenco, M.; Fernández-Fernández, M.; Ghelardini, L.; Gonthier, P.; Hernández-Escribano, L.; Ioos, R.; Markovskaja, S.; Martínez-Álvarez, P.; Muñoz-Adalia, E.J.; Nowakowska, J.A.; Oszako, T.; Raposo, R.; Santini, A.; Hantula, J. Pine Pitch Canker (PPC): Pathways of Pathogen Spread and Preventive Measures. Forests 2019, 10, 1158.

AMA Style

Zamora-Ballesteros C, Diez JJ, Martín-García J, Witzell J, Solla A, Ahumada R, Capretti P, Cleary M, Drenkhan R, Dvořák M, Elvira-Recuenco M, Fernández-Fernández M, Ghelardini L, Gonthier P, Hernández-Escribano L, Ioos R, Markovskaja S, Martínez-Álvarez P, Muñoz-Adalia EJ, Nowakowska JA, Oszako T, Raposo R, Santini A, Hantula J. Pine Pitch Canker (PPC): Pathways of Pathogen Spread and Preventive Measures. Forests. 2019; 10(12):1158.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zamora-Ballesteros, Cristina, Julio J. Diez, Jorge Martín-García, Johanna Witzell, Alejandro Solla, Rodrigo Ahumada, Paolo Capretti, Michelle Cleary, Rein Drenkhan, Miloň Dvořák, Margarita Elvira-Recuenco, Mercedes Fernández-Fernández, Luisa Ghelardini, Paolo Gonthier, Laura Hernández-Escribano, Renaud Ioos, Svetlana Markovskaja, Pablo Martínez-Álvarez, E. J. Muñoz-Adalia, Justyna A. Nowakowska, Tomasz Oszako, Rosa Raposo, Alberto Santini, and Jarkko Hantula. 2019. "Pine Pitch Canker (PPC): Pathways of Pathogen Spread and Preventive Measures" Forests 10, no. 12: 1158.

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