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Open AccessArticle

Genetic Diversity and Population Genetic Structure of Cinnamomum camphora in South China Revealed by EST-SSR Markers

1
The Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Genetic and Improvement of Jiangxi Province, Institute of Biological Resources, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, No. 7777, Changdong Road, Gaoxin District, Nanchang 330096, China
2
Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
3
Jiangxi Forestry Techniques Extension Station, No. 2688, Ganjiang South Avenue, Nanchang 330038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(11), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10111019
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Genetics and Tree Improvement)
Cinnamomum camphora is a valuable broad-leaf tree indigenous to South China and East Asia and has been widely cultivated and utilized by humans since ancient times. However, owing to its overutilization for essential oil extraction, the Transplanting Big Trees into Cities Program, and over deforestation to make furniture, its wild populations have been detrimentally affected and are declining rapidly. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of 180 trees sampled from 41 populations in South China were investigated with 22 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers. In total, 61 alleles were harbored across 180 individuals, and medium genetic diversity level was inferred from the observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), and Nei’ gene diversity (GD), which were 0.45, 0.44, and 0.44, respectively. Among the 41 wild populations, C. camphora had an average of 44 alleles, 2.02 effective alleles, and He ranging from 0.30 (SC) to 0.61 (HK). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 17% of the variation among populations and the average pairwise genetic differentiation coefficient (FST) between populations was 0.162, indicating relatively low genetic population differentiations. Structure analysis suggested two groups for the 180 individuals, which was consistent with the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). Populations grouped to cluster I were nearly all distributed in Jiangxi Province (except population XS in Zhejiang Province), and cluster II mainly comprised populations from other regions, indicating a significant geographical distribution. Moreover, the Mantel test showed that this geographical distance was significantly correlated with genetic distance. The findings of this research will assist in future C. camphora conservation management and breeding programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cinnamomum camphora; microsatellite markers; genetic diversity; population structure Cinnamomum camphora; microsatellite markers; genetic diversity; population structure
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Zhong, Y.; Yang, A.; Li, Z.; Zhang, H.; Liu, L.; Wu, Z.; Li, Y.; Liu, T.; Xu, M.; Yu, F. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetic Structure of Cinnamomum camphora in South China Revealed by EST-SSR Markers. Forests 2019, 10, 1019.

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