Illegal selective logging and forest fires occur on a large scale in the northern Brazilian Amazon, contributing to an increase in tree mortality and a reduction in forest carbon stock. A total of 120 plots of 0.25 ha (30 ha) were installed in transitional ecosystems or ecotones (LOt) between the forested shade-loving campinarana (Ld) and dense-canopy rainforest, submontane (Ds), in the National Forest (Flona) of Anauá, southern Roraima. Measuring the diameters at breast height (DBH ≥ 10 cm) and the heights of 171 dead trees (fallen naturally, illegally exploited, and affected by forest fires), enabled the estimation of carbon content from the application of a biomass equation developed at Manaus, and the calculation of a correction factor, using the average height of the largest trees. From 2015–2017, we mapped the real extent of illegal selective logging and forest fires across the region with CLASlite and INPE/Queimadas. From measurements of 14,730 live and dead trees across 30 hectares (491 ± 15 trees·ha−1
), the illegal selective logging and associated forest fires, and aggravation by severe El Niño droughts resulted in an 8.2% mortality of trees (40 ± 9 dead trees·ha−1
) and a 3.5% reduction in forest carbon stock (6 ± 3 Mg·ha−1
) in the short-term. The surface area or influence of forest fires of very high density were estimated in the south-central region of Roraima (8374 km²) and the eastern region of the Flona Anauá (37 km²). Illegal selective logging and forest fires in forest areas totaled 357 km² in the mosaic area, and 6 km² within Flona Anaua. Illegal selective logging and forest fires in the years of severe El Niño droughts threatened the maintenance of environmental services provided by Amazonian forests.
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