There are two reasons to have an efficient algorithm for identifying all right-maximal Lyndon substrings of a string: firstly, Bannai et al. introduced in 2015 a linear algorithm to compute all runs of a string that relies on knowing all right-maximal Lyndon substrings of the input string, and secondly, Franek et al. showed in 2017 a linear equivalence of sorting suffixes and sorting right-maximal Lyndon substrings of a string, inspired by a novel suffix sorting algorithm of Baier. In 2016, Franek et al. presented a brief overview of algorithms for computing the Lyndon array that encodes the knowledge of right-maximal Lyndon substrings of the input string. Among those presented were two well-known algorithms for computing the Lyndon array: a quadratic in-place algorithm based on the iterated Duval algorithm for Lyndon factorization and a linear algorithmic scheme based on linear suffix sorting, computing the inverse suffix array, and applying to it the next smaller value
algorithm. Duval’s algorithm works for strings over any ordered alphabet, while for linear suffix sorting, a constant or an integer alphabet is required. The authors at that time were not aware of Baier’s algorithm. In 2017, our research group proposed a novel algorithm for the Lyndon array. Though the proposed algorithm is linear in the average case and has
worst-case complexity, it is interesting as it emulates the fast Fourier algorithm’s recursive approach and introduces
-reduction, which might be of independent interest. In 2018, we presented a linear algorithm to compute the Lyndon array of a string inspired by Phase I of Baier’s algorithm for suffix sorting. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of these two algorithms and provides empirical comparisons of both of their C++ implementations with respect to the iterated Duval algorithm.
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