Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy milling has been frequently used in aviation/aerospace industries. Application environments put forward high requirements to create a desired proportion of the constituent phases and fine grain size for optimum mechanical properties of the machined workpiece. However, quantifying microstructural features of dual-phase (α + β) Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is difficult due to its irregular geometry and large dimension span. In this paper, a novel scanning electron microscope (SEM) image processing method was proposed to identify the content of constituent phases of materials. The new approach is based on the fact that the constituent phases of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy show different gray levels in digital images. On the basis of the processed image, distribution and average values of grain sizes were calculated directly using Image-Pro Plus software. By the proposed method, sensitivity of microstructural changes to milling parameters is analyzed and the stress-strain behavior for two ductile phase alloys is developed. Main conclusions are drawn that Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy milling induces a high content of β phase and small grain size on the machined surface. The maximum measured values of change rate of β phase, grain refinement rate at the machined surface, and thickness of the deformation layer are 141.1%, 47.2%, and 12.3 μm, respectively. Thickness of the deformed layer and grain refinement rate decreased distinctly with the increase of cutting speed, but increased with the increase of the feed rate. The parameter of the depth of cut played a positive role in increasing the thickness of the deformed layer, while opposite to the grain refinement rate. For the variation of the change rate of the β phase at the machined surface, depth of cut is the foremost factor among the three studied parameters. Values of yield strength varied from 889–921 MPa with the change of content of the β phase from 30%–45%.
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