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One-Step Method to Prepare PLLA Porous Microspheres in a High-Voltage Electrostatic Anti-Solvent Process

by Ying Wang 1, Li-Hui Zhu 1, Ai-Zheng Chen 1,2,3,*, Qiao Xu 1, Yu-Juan Hong 1 and Shi-Bin Wang 1,2,3,*
1
College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China
2
Institute of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China
3
Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Biochemical Technology, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aldo R. Boccaccini
Materials 2016, 9(5), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9050368
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
A one-step method using a high-voltage electrostatic anti-solvent process was employed to fabricate poly-l-lactide (PLLA) porous microspheres (PMs). To address the simplification and control of the preparation process, a 24 full factorial experiment was performed to optimize the operating process and analyze the effect of the factors on the morphology and aerodynamic properties of the PLLA PMs, and various characterization tests were also performed. The resulting PLLA PMs exhibited an even and porous morphology with a density less than 0.4 g/cm3, a geometric mean diameter (Dg) of 10–30 μm, an aerodynamic diameter (Da) of 1–5 μm, a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 56.3%, and a porosity of 76.2%, meeting the requirements for pulmonary drug delivery. The physicochemical characterizations reveal that no significant chemical change occurred in the PLLA during the process. An investigation of its in vitro cytotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity shows no obvious toxic response, indicating good biosafety. This study indicates that the one-step method using a high-voltage electrostatic anti-solvent process has great potential in developing an inhalable drug carrier for pulmonary drug delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly-l-lactide; porous microspheres; aerodynamic properties; pulmonary drug delivery; biosafety poly-l-lactide; porous microspheres; aerodynamic properties; pulmonary drug delivery; biosafety
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Wang, Y.; Zhu, L.-H.; Chen, A.-Z.; Xu, Q.; Hong, Y.-J.; Wang, S.-B. One-Step Method to Prepare PLLA Porous Microspheres in a High-Voltage Electrostatic Anti-Solvent Process. Materials 2016, 9, 368.

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