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A Review of PMMA Bone Cement and Intra‐Cardiac Embolism

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Division of Cardiology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
Bone and Joint Center at Magee‐Women’s Hospital of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213 USA
McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2016, 9(10), 821;
Received: 3 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 6 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure is of major importance, given the significantly increasing aging population and the higher number of orthopedic procedures related to vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty is a complex technique involving the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the compressed vertebral body for mechanical stabilization of the fracture. Our understanding and ability to modify these mechanisms through alterations in cement material is rapidly evolving. However, the rate of cardiac complications secondary to PMMA injection and subsequent cement leakage has increased with time. The following review considers the main effects of PMMA bone cement on the heart, and the extent of influence of the materials on cardiac embolism. Clinically, cement leakage results in life‐threatening cardiac injury. The convolution of this outcome through an appropriate balance of complex material properties is highlighted via clinical case reports. View Full-Text
Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; cardiac embolism; cement leakage; viscosity PMMA; bone cement; cardiac embolism; cement leakage; viscosity
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Shridhar, P.; Chen, Y.; Khalil, R.; Plakseychuk, A.; Cho, S.K.; Tillman, B.; Kumta, P.N.; Chun, Y. A Review of PMMA Bone Cement and Intra‐Cardiac Embolism. Materials 2016, 9, 821.

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