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Open AccessArticle

A Comparative Study of the Sintering Behavior of Pure and Manganese-Substituted Hydroxyapatite

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Rd, Unit 3136, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Department of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, J07 University of Sydney, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rafael Luque
Materials 2015, 8(9), 6419-6436;
Received: 12 July 2015 / Revised: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely studied biomaterial for its similar chemical composition to bone and its osteoconductive properties. The crystal structure of HA is flexible, allowing for a wide range of substitutions which can alter bioactivity, biodegradation, and mechanical properties of the substituted apatite. The thermal stability of a substituted apatite is an indication of its biodegradation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the thermal stability and mechanical properties of manganese-substituted hydroxyapatite (MnHA) as it is reported that manganese can enhance cell attachment compared to pure HA. Pure HA and MnHA pellets were sintered over the following temperature ranges: 900 to 1300 °C and 700 to 1300 °C respectively. The sintered pellets were characterized via density measurements, mechanical testing, X-ray diffraction, and field emission electron microscopy. It was found that MnHA was less stable than HA decomposing around 800 °C compared to 1200 °C for HA. The flexural strength of MnHA was weaker than HA due to the decomposition of MnHA at a significantly lower temperature of 800 °C compared to 1100 °C for HA. The low thermal stability of MnHA suggests that a faster in vivo dissolution rate compared to pure HA is expected. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; ion substitution; sintering behavior hydroxyapatite; ion substitution; sintering behavior
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Zilm, M.; Thomson, S.D.; Wei, M. A Comparative Study of the Sintering Behavior of Pure and Manganese-Substituted Hydroxyapatite. Materials 2015, 8, 6419-6436.

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