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Open AccessArticle

Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures

Department of Prosthodontics, Propaedeutics and Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Christian-Albrechts University, Arnold-Heller-Straße 16, Kiel D-24105, Germany
Chair for Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts University at Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, Kiel D-24143, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew J. Ruys
Materials 2015, 8(5), 2650-2657;
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD) were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II. Untreated zirconia specimens were used as control. Afterwards the surfaces were cleaned either with waterspray or ultrasonically in 99% isopropanol or using a newly developed cleaning paste (Ivoclean). After cleaning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed and the relative peak intensities of Zr, C and Si were used for a qualitative comparison of the residuals. There was no significant difference between the two different silicone disclosing agents. An additional cleaning step with isopropanol led to a significantly lower amount of residuals on the surface, but an additional cleaning process with Ivoclean did not reduce the amount of carbon residuals in comparison to the isopropanol cleaning. Just the silicone amount on the surface was reduced. None of the investigated cleaning processes removed all residuals from the contaminated surface. Standard cleaning processes do not remove all residuals of the silicone disclosing agent from the surface. This may lead to a failure of the resin-ceramic bonding. View Full-Text
Keywords: contamination; zirconia; silicone; cleaning; surface analysis contamination; zirconia; silicone; cleaning; surface analysis
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Wille, S.; Van Broeck, V.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.; Kern, M. Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures. Materials 2015, 8, 2650-2657.

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