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Mechanisms of in Vivo Degradation and Resorption of Calcium Phosphate Based Biomaterials

1
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada
2
Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 1G1, Canada
3
Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Cairo 11553, Egypt
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Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Dental Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada
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College of Dentistry, Division of Prosthodontics, Ziauddin University, Karachi 75530, Pakistan
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Matrix Dynamics Group, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: C. Edi Tanase
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7913-7925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8115430
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regenerative Materials)
Calcium phosphate ceramic materials are extensively used for bone replacement and regeneration in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgical applications. In order for these biomaterials to work effectively it is imperative that they undergo the process of degradation and resorption in vivo. This allows for the space to be created for the new bone tissue to form and infiltrate within the implanted graft material. Several factors affect the biodegradation and resorption of calcium phosphate materials after implantation. Various cell types are involved in the degradation process by phagocytic mechanisms (monocytes/macrophages, fibroblasts, osteoblasts) or via an acidic mechanism to reduce the micro-environmental pH which results in demineralization of the cement matrix and resorption via osteoclasts. These cells exert their degradation effects directly or indirectly through the cytokine growth factor secretion and their sensitivity and response to these biomolecules. This article discusses the mechanisms of calcium phosphate material degradation in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium phosphate; degradation; resorption; implantation; in vivo calcium phosphate; degradation; resorption; implantation; in vivo
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Sheikh, Z.; Abdallah, M.-N.; Hanafi, A.A.; Misbahuddin, S.; Rashid, H.; Glogauer, M. Mechanisms of in Vivo Degradation and Resorption of Calcium Phosphate Based Biomaterials. Materials 2015, 8, 7913-7925.

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