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Extrinsic Contribution and Instability Properties in Lead-Based and Lead-Free Piezoceramics

Department of Physics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya—BarcelonaTech., 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Academic Editor: Lorena Pardo
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7821-7836; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8115426
Received: 19 October 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials)
Piezoceramic materials generally exhibit a notable instability of their functional properties when they work under real external conditions. This undesirable effect, known as nonlinear behavior, is mostly associated with the extrinsic contribution to material response. In this article, the role of the ferroelectric domain walls’ motion in the nonlinear response in the most workable lead-based and lead-free piezoceramics is reviewed. Initially, the extrinsic origin of the nonlinear response is discussed in terms of the temperature dependence of material response. The influence of the crystallographic phase and of the phase boundaries on the material response are then reviewed. Subsequently, the impact of the defects created by doping in order to control the extrinsic contribution is discussed as a way of tuning material properties. Finally, some aspects related to the grain-size effect on the nonlinear response of piezoceramics are surveyed. View Full-Text
Keywords: piezoelectric materials; nonlinear properties; extrinsic contribution; dielectric properties; piezoelectric properties piezoelectric materials; nonlinear properties; extrinsic contribution; dielectric properties; piezoelectric properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

García, J.E. Extrinsic Contribution and Instability Properties in Lead-Based and Lead-Free Piezoceramics. Materials 2015, 8, 7821-7836.

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