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Materials 2015, 8(1), 96-116;

Adsorption of C.I. Natural Red 4 onto Spongin Skeleton of Marine Demosponge

Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, Poznan 60965, Poland
Institute of Inorganic Technology and Mineral Fertilizers, Technical University of Wroclaw, Smoluchowskiego 25, Wroclaw 50372, Poland
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Center for Materials Genomics, Duke University, 144 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Institute of Experimental Physics, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger 23, Freiberg 09599, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Harold Freeman
Received: 31 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Colorants 2014)
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C.I. Natural Red 4 dye, also known as carmine or cochineal, was adsorbed onto the surface of spongin-based fibrous skeleton of Hippospongia communis marine demosponge for the first time. The influence of the initial concentration of dye, the contact time, and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process was investigated. The results presented here confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for developing a novel dye/biopolymer hybrid material. The kinetics of the adsorption of carmine onto a marine sponge were also determined. The experimental data correspond directly to a pseudo-second-order model for adsorption kinetics (r2 = 0.979–0.999). The hybrid product was subjected to various types of analysis (FT-IR, Raman, 13C CP/MAS NMR, XPS) to investigate the nature of the interactions between the spongin (adsorbent) and the dye (the adsorbate). The dominant interactions between the dye and spongin were found to be hydrogen bonds and electrostatic effects. Combining the dye with a spongin support resulted with a novel hybrid material that is potentially attractive for bioactive applications and drug delivery systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: C.I. Natural Red 4; carmine; dye adsorption; kinetic model; marine sponge; spongin; Hippospongia communis C.I. Natural Red 4; carmine; dye adsorption; kinetic model; marine sponge; spongin; Hippospongia communis

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Norman, M.; Bartczak, P.; Zdarta, J.; Tylus, W.; Szatkowski, T.; Stelling, A.L.; Ehrlich, H.; Jesionowski, T. Adsorption of C.I. Natural Red 4 onto Spongin Skeleton of Marine Demosponge. Materials 2015, 8, 96-116.

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