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Determination and Quantification of Molecular Interactions in Protein Films: A Review

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Fraunhofer-Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, Giggenhauser Strasse 35, Freising 85354, Germany
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Chair of Food Packaging Technology, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Steig 22, Freising 85354, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2014, 7(12), 7975-7996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7127975
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Protein based films are nowadays also prepared with the aim of replacing expensive, crude oil-based polymers as environmentally friendly and renewable alternatives. The protein structure determines the ability of protein chains to form intra- and intermolecular bonds, whereas the degree of cross-linking depends on the amino acid composition and molecular weight of the protein, besides the conditions used in film preparation and processing. The functionality varies significantly depending on the type of protein and affects the resulting film quality and properties. This paper reviews the methods used in examination of molecular interactions in protein films and discusses how these intermolecular interactions can be quantified. The qualitative determination methods can be distinguished by structural analysis of solutions (electrophoretic analysis, size exclusion chromatography) and analysis of solid films (spectroscopy techniques, X-ray scattering methods). To quantify molecular interactions involved, two methods were found to be the most suitable: protein film swelling and solubility. The importance of non-covalent and covalent interactions in protein films can be investigated using different solvents. The research was focused on whey protein, whereas soy protein and wheat gluten were included as further examples of proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: whey protein; soy protein; wheat gluten; cross-linking; SDS‑PAGE; NMR; CD; FTIR; protein solubility study whey protein; soy protein; wheat gluten; cross-linking; SDS‑PAGE; NMR; CD; FTIR; protein solubility study
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Hammann, F.; Schmid, M. Determination and Quantification of Molecular Interactions in Protein Films: A Review. Materials 2014, 7, 7975-7996.

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