# The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment

^{1}

^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

_{∞}) and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor (r). Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q

_{∞}and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experimental Plan and Method

#### 2.1. Experimental Plan

^{3}). Also, for a constant placement temperature of concrete, the materials were stored and cured in a constant temperature room (20 °C). The target slump and the target air content were set to 150 ± 25 mm and 4.5% ± 1.5%, respectively. For the chemical admixture, the amount was adjusted so that the target slump and air content could be satisfied.

#### 2.2. Materials and Mixing

Binder Type | Adiabatic Specimen Volume (L) | W/B (%) | Slump (mm) | Air (%) | S/a (%) | Unit Weight (kg/m^{3}) | Test Items | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Water | Binder | Sand | Gravel | |||||||

OPC | (1) 6
(2) 30 (3) 50 | 53.3 | 150 ± 25 | 4.5 ± 1.5 | 47 | 160 | 300 | 870 | 1011 | —Adiabatic temperature rise (Q_{∞}, r); —Correlation between the 6 L, 30 L and the 50 L adiabatic temperature rise tests |

40.0 | 46 | 160 | 400 | 814 | 985 | |||||

32.0 | 45 | 160 | 500 | 759 | 956 | |||||

LPC | 53.3 | 47 | 160 | 300 | 873 | 1014 | ||||

40.0 | 46 | 160 | 400 | 817 | 989 | |||||

32.0 | 45 | 160 | 500 | 763 | 961 | |||||

TBC | 53.3 | 47 | 160 | 300 | 858 | 997 | ||||

40.0 | 46 | 160 | 400 | 798 | 966 | |||||

32.0 | 45 | 160 | 500 | 740 | 932 | |||||

EBC | 53.3 | 47 | 160 | 300 | 858 | 997 | ||||

40.0 | 46 | 160 | 400 | 798 | 966 | |||||

32.0 | 45 | 160 | 500 | 740 | 932 |

Material | Specific gravity | Blaine (cm^{3}/g) | Ignition loss |
---|---|---|---|

Ordinary Portland cement | 3.15 | 3475 | 2.15 |

Low heat Portland cement | 3.22 | 3500 | 1.90 |

Ternary blended cement | 2.88 | 3810 | 1.20 |

Early strength low heat blended cement | 2.89 | 3802 | 0.07 |

Material | Type | Diameter (mm) | F.M | S.G |
---|---|---|---|---|

Fine aggregate | River sand | 5 | 3.06 | 2.59 |

Coarse aggregate | Crushed stone | 25 | 7.06 | 2.67 |

Material | Type | pH | S.G |
---|---|---|---|

Admixture 1 | Polynaphthalene sulfonates based | 6.0 | 1.20 |

Admixture 2 | Polycarboxylic acid based | 6.5 | 1.05 |

#### 2.3. Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test

^{3}); T = T(x, y, z, t) temperature of concrete (°C); q = q(x, y, z, T) rate of heat generated inside the body (kJ/m

^{3}·h).

_{∞}represents the maximum temperature rise, and r represents the reaction factor:

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Influence of Binder Types on Adiabatic Temperature History

_{∞}) was in the order of the OPC, LPC, TBC, and EBC mixtures from highest to lowest. The reaction factor (r) was in the order of the OPC, EBC, LPC, and TBC mixtures from highest to lowest.

**Figure 3.**Results of the 50 L hadiabatic temperature rise test depending on binder types. (

**a**) Unit weight of binder: 300 kg/m

^{3}; (

**b**) unit weight of binder: 400 kg/m

^{3}; (

**c**) unit weight of binder: 500 kg/m

^{3}.

**Figure 4.**Results of the adiabatic temperature rise test for (

**a**) unit weight of binder of 300 kg/m

^{3}; (

**b**) unit weight of binder of 400 kg/m

^{3}; and (

**c**) unit weight of binder of 500 kg/m

^{3}.

_{∞}) increased as the unit weight of binder increased for every mixture. Especially for the LPC mixture, Q

_{∞}increased at a relatively high rate with the increase in the unit weight of binder. As shown in Figure 5b, the reaction factor increased as the unit weight of binder increased for every mixture. However, the LPC, TBC, and EBC mixtures showed only small changes when the unit weight of binder increases.

**Figure 5.**Results of the adiabatic temperature rise test for (

**a**) maximum temperature rise; and (

**b**) reaction factor.

#### 3.2. Influence of Specimen Volume on Adiabatic Temperature History

_{∞}and the r increased as the diameter of the adiabatic specimen increased is thought to be due to the characteristics of the adiabatic temperature rise test apparatus.

**Figure 6.**Amount results of the 6 L adiabatic temperature rise test depending on binder types. (

**a**) Unit weight of binder: 300 kg/m

^{3}; (

**b**) unit weight of binder: 400 kg/m

^{3}; (

**c**) unit weight of binder: 500 kg/m

^{3}.

**Figure 7.**Results of the 30 L adiabatic temperature rise test depending on binder types. (

**a**) Unit weight of binder: 300 kg/m

^{3}; (

**b**) unit weight of binder: 400 kg/m

^{3}; (

**c**) unit weight of binder: 500 kg/m

^{3}.

**Figure 8.**Maximum temperature rise obtained from the 6 L, 30 L, and 50 L specimen tests. (

**a**) OPC; (

**b**) LPC; (

**c**) TBC; (

**d**) EBC.

**Figure 9.**Reaction factor obtained from the 6 L, 30 L, and 50 L specimen tests. (

**a**) OPC; (

**b**) LPC; (

**c**) TBC; (

**d**) EBC.

_{∞}and the r increased in proportion to the diameter of the vessel; for the 6 L vessel with a diameter of 160 mm, the Q

_{∞}and the r were the lowest because the largest heat loss occurred. For the 30 L and 50 L vessels with similar diameters (350 mm and 400 mm, respectively), the 50 L vessel had a slightly higher Q

_{∞}and r than the 30 L vessel. Therefore, it is thought that the diameter of the measurement vessel influences the adiabatic temperature rise even though the test apparatus satisfies the requirement for adiabatic condition recommended by Rilem TC 119-TCE.

#### 3.3. Correlation of the Adiabatic Temperature Rises and the Specimen Volume

_{∞}and the r depending on adiabatic specimen volume. In Figure 11a, the regression lines were drawn using a y-intercept of 0. For the 6 L specimen, the regression function of y = 1.2115x was obtained, and the R-squared was 0.995, which indicated a very high correlation. For the 30 L specimen, the regression function of y = 1.0117x was obtained, and the R-squared was 0.999. Therefore, it was found that the Q

_{∞}of the 50 L specimen was about 17.5% and 2.1% higher than those of the 6 L and 30 L specimens, respectively. Also, in Figure 11b, the regression lines were drawn using a y-intercept of 0, depending on vessel type. For the 6 L specimen, the regression function was y = 1.1403x, and the R-squared was 0.9861; and for the 30 L specimen, the regression function was y = 1.0075x, and the R-squared was 0.9998, which indicated a very high correlation, similar to the case of Q

_{∞}. Also, it was found that the r of the 50 L specimen was about 12.5% and 0.8% higher than those of the 6 L and 30 L specimens, respectively.

**Figure 11.**Correlation between the 6 L, 30 L, and 50 L adiabatic temperature rise test results for (

**a**) maximum temperature rise; and (

**b**) reaction factor.

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- The adiabatic temperature rise test showed that for every mixture, the Q
_{∞}and the r increased in proportion to the unit weight of binder. Of the mixtures, the EBC mixture had the lowest Q_{∞}and the TBC mixture had the lowest r. - (2)
- Even though the experiment was conducted using an adiabatic calorimeter satisfying the minimum requirement of temperature loss, test results show that the volume of samples influences the adiabatic test results. For every mixture, the maximum temperature increase (Q
_{∞}) and reaction factor (r) of the 50 L specimens were about 17.5% and 12.5% higher than those of the 6 L specimens. However, there are only little differences (Q_{∞}1.27%, r 1.30%) between the results of the 30 L and 50 L specimens. This proves that even a small temperature loss can affect the adiabatic temperature history of a small size of specimen. In this experiment, a 4 L sample size was not appropriate for an adiabatic temperature rise test. - (3)
- Based on the test results, correlations are proposed for the compensation of temperature loss with small-size specimens. By using the proposed correlation depending on adiabatic specimen volume, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted based on the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used as baseline data for on-site concrete quality control and research purposes.

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lee, B.J.; Bang, J.W.; Shin, K.J.; Kim, Y.Y. The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment. *Materials* **2014**, *7*, 7861-7874.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7127861

**AMA Style**

Lee BJ, Bang JW, Shin KJ, Kim YY. The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment. *Materials*. 2014; 7(12):7861-7874.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7127861

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lee, Byung Jae, Jin Wook Bang, Kyung Joon Shin, and Yun Yong Kim. 2014. "The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment" *Materials* 7, no. 12: 7861-7874.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7127861