Next Article in Journal
Acoustic Emission Behavior of Early Age Concrete Monitored by Embedded Sensors
Next Article in Special Issue
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polypropylene Composites Reinforced with Lignocellulose Nanofibers Dried in Melted Ethylene-Butene Copolymer
Previous Article in Journal
Diffusion and Interface Effects during Preparation of All-Solid Microstructured Fibers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Binding Effects in Wood Flour Board Containing Ligno-Cellulose Nanofibers
Open AccessArticle

Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P. O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2014, 7(10), 6893-6907;
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 1 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials 2014)
A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1) drying on a hot metal surface; (2) air impingement drying; and (3) hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose nanofibril; substrate; drying; evaporation; surface; material property cellulose nanofibril; substrate; drying; evaporation; surface; material property
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Timofeev, O.; Torvinen, K.; Sievänen, J.; Kaljunen, T.; Kouko, J.; Ketoja, J.A. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates. Materials 2014, 7, 6893-6907.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop