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Advances in High-Field BOLD fMRI
Open AccessArticle

Accurate Measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gradient Characteristics

by Hui Liu 1 and Gerald B. Matson 1,2,*
Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2014, 7(1), 1-15;
Received: 3 November 2013 / Revised: 13 December 2013 / Accepted: 16 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Field Magnetic Resonance Methods and Materials)
Recently, gradient performance and fidelity has become of increasing interest, as the fidelity of the magnetic resonance (MR) image is somewhat dependent on the fidelity of the gradient system. In particular, for high fidelity non-Cartesian imaging, due to non-fidelity of the gradient system, it becomes necessary to know the actual k-space trajectory as opposed to the requested trajectory. In this work we show that, by considering the gradient system as a linear time-invariant system, the gradient impulse response function (GIRF) can be reliably measured to a relatively high degree of accuracy with a simple setup, using a small phantom and a series of simple experiments. It is shown experimentally that the resulting GIRF is able to predict actual gradient performance with a high degree of accuracy. The method captures not only the frequency response but also gradient timing errors and artifacts due to mechanical vibrations of the gradient system. Some discussion is provided comparing the method presented here with other analogous methods, along with limitations of these methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); gradients; impulse response function magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); gradients; impulse response function
MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, H.; Matson, G.B. Accurate Measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gradient Characteristics. Materials 2014, 7, 1-15.

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