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Morphological Change of Heat Treated Bovine Bone: A Comparative Study

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2013, 6(1), 65-75;
Received: 13 October 2012 / Revised: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
In this work, untreated bovine cortical bones (BCBs) were exposed to a range of heat treatments in order to determine at which temperature the apatite develops an optimum morphology comprising porous nano hydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) crystals. Rectangular specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 3–5 mm) of BCB were prepared, being excised in normal to longitudinal and transverse directions. Specimens were sintered at up to 900 °C under ambient pressure in order to produce apatites by two steps sintering. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector. For the first time, morphology of the HAp particles was predicted by XRD, and it was verified by SEM. The results show that an equiaxed polycrystalline HAp particle with uniform porosity was produced at 900 °C. It indicates that a porous nanoHAp achieved by sintering at 900 °C can be an ideal candidate as an in situ scaffold for load-bearing tissue applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; scaffold; shape; crystallite; porosity; equiaxed hydroxyapatite; scaffold; shape; crystallite; porosity; equiaxed
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Pramanik, S.; Hanif, A.S.M.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.; Abu Osman, N.A. Morphological Change of Heat Treated Bovine Bone: A Comparative Study. Materials 2013, 6, 65-75.

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