In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the preparation of polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to the tremendous enhancement of the mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical and structural properties of the pristine material. This is due to the unique combination of structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CNTs. However, it is well-known that the properties of polymer-based nanocomposites strongly depend on the dispersion of nanofillers and almost all the discussed properties of PP/CNTs nanocomposites are strongly related to their microstructure. PP/CNTs nanocomposites were, mainly, prepared by melt mixing and in situ polymerization. Young’s modulus, tensile strength and storage modulus of the PP/CNTs nanocomposites can be increased with increasing CNTs content due to the reinforcement effect of CNTs inside the polymer matrix. However, above a certain CNTs content the mechanical properties are reduced due to the CNTs agglomeration. The microstructure of nanocomposites has been studied mainly by SEM and TEM techniques. Furthermore, it was found that CNTs can act as nucleating agents promoting the crystallization rates of PP and the addition of CNTs enhances all other physical properties of PP. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the existing literature related to PP/CNTs nanocomposite preparation methods and properties studies.