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Review

Utilization of Red Mud as a Source for Metal Ions—A Review

FZU-Institute of Physics of Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 1999/2, 182 21 Prague, Czech Republic
Academic Editor: F. Pacheco Torgal
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092211
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 25 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Use of Green Technologies in Various Areas)
An overview is presented on the prospective use of red mud as a resource in this review. Various scopes are suggested for the utilization of red mud to maintain a sustainable environment. The potential use of red mud covers the valuable metal recovery that could emphasize the use of red mud as a resource. Red mud could act as reduced slag in the metallurgical field for the extraction of minerals and metals for upscale application. Although many studies have revealed the potential utilization of red mud, most of them are only limited to a lab-scale basis. Therefore, a large-scale investigation on recycling of red mud for the extraction in the area of the metal recovery section will draw attention to the extensive use of red mud. Metal ions of major elements Fe (44 wt.%), Al (18.2 wt.%), Si (14.3 wt.%), Ti (9.3 wt.%), Na (6.2 wt.%), Ca (4.4 wt.%) as major elements and of Mg, V, Mn, Cr, K as minor elements and rare earth elements such as Ce (102 mg/kg), La (56 mg/kg), Sc (47 mg/kg), Nd (45 mg/kg), Sm (9 mg/kg). Moreover, an appropriate in-house metal recovery facility with the alumina industry will come out as a cost–benefit analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: red mud; resources; fly ash; reduced slag; metal ion recovery; mineralogical red mud; resources; fly ash; reduced slag; metal ion recovery; mineralogical
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MDPI and ACS Style

Samal, S. Utilization of Red Mud as a Source for Metal Ions—A Review. Materials 2021, 14, 2211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092211

AMA Style

Samal S. Utilization of Red Mud as a Source for Metal Ions—A Review. Materials. 2021; 14(9):2211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092211

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samal, Sneha. 2021. "Utilization of Red Mud as a Source for Metal Ions—A Review" Materials 14, no. 9: 2211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092211

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