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Article

In-Situ Nano-Auger Probe of Chloride-Ions during CH3NH3PbI3−xClx Perovskite Formation

1
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daeug 41566, Korea
2
Division of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 04310, Korea
3
Institute of Advanced Materials and Systems, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 04310, Korea
4
SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Department of Nanoengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea
5
School of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
6
Department of Applied Physics, College of Engineering, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 04310, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Lucia Nasi
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051102
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
Organo-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as next-generation photovoltaics, owing to their high power-conversion efficiency (PCE), lower production cost, and high flexibility. ABX3-structured methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3 or MAPbI3) perovskite is a widely studied light-absorbing material in PSCs. Interestingly, a small amount of chlorine incorporation into MAPbI3 increases charge carrier diffusion lengths (from 129 nm to 1069 nm), which enables planar structured PSCs with high PCEs. However, existence of chloride ions in the final perovskite film is still under debate. Contrastingly, few studies reported a negligible amount or absence of chloride ions in the final film, while others reported detection of chloride ions in the final film. Herein, we observed the microstructure and chlorine content of MAPbI3−xClx thin films with increasing temperature via an in-situ nano-Auger spectroscopy and in-situ scanning electron microscopic analysis. The relative precipitation of MAPbI3−xClx films occur at lower temperature and MAPbI3−xClx grains grow faster than those of MAPbI3 grains. Local concentrations of chlorine at intragrain and the vicinity of grain boundary were analyzed to understand the behavior and role of the chloride ions during the microstructural evolution of the MAPbI3−xClx films. View Full-Text
Keywords: perovskite; MAPbI3−xClx; nano-auger perovskite; MAPbI3−xClx; nano-auger
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vidyasagar, D.; Yun, Y.-H.; Shin, S.; Jung, J.; Park, W.; Lee, J.-W.; Han, G.S.; Ko, C.; Lee, S. In-Situ Nano-Auger Probe of Chloride-Ions during CH3NH3PbI3−xClx Perovskite Formation. Materials 2021, 14, 1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051102

AMA Style

Vidyasagar D, Yun Y-H, Shin S, Jung J, Park W, Lee J-W, Han GS, Ko C, Lee S. In-Situ Nano-Auger Probe of Chloride-Ions during CH3NH3PbI3−xClx Perovskite Formation. Materials. 2021; 14(5):1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051102

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vidyasagar, Devthade, Yong-Han Yun, Seunghak Shin, Jina Jung, Woosung Park, Jin-Wook Lee, Gill S. Han, Changhyun Ko, and Sangwook Lee. 2021. "In-Situ Nano-Auger Probe of Chloride-Ions during CH3NH3PbI3−xClx Perovskite Formation" Materials 14, no. 5: 1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051102

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