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Open AccessArticle

Reusable Sensor for Strontium Sulfate Scale Monitoring in Seawater

1
Directed Energy Research Centre, Technology Innovation Institute, Abu Dhabi 9639, United Arab Emirates
2
Electrical Engineering Department, Ecole Mohammedia des Ingenieurs (EMI), Mohammed V University-Agdal, Rabat 10090, Morocco
3
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mauro Fernandes Pereira and Theodore E. Matikas
Materials 2021, 14(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030676
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 24 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 1 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Sources and Detectors in the GIGA-TERA-MIR Range 2020)
The onset of scaling in oil pipelines can halt or drastically reduce oil production, causing huge financial losses and delays. Current methods used to monitor scaling can take weeks, while the scaling process only takes few hours. The proposed sensor is designed for online monitoring of strontium ions concentration in seawater as an early scaling indicator. The sensor operates in the GHz range by probing the shift in the resonance frequency due to changes in the ionic concentrations of the medium. The results show selective sensitivity to changes in the strontium ions concentration even in the presence of many other ions found in seawater. The measured sensitivity is found to be stable and linear with a detection level of better than 0.08% (0.042 mol/L) of strontium ions in seawater. This work demonstrates a robust GHz sensor for strontium sulfate scale monitoring and early detection, which could be used in the oil industry to prevent huge production losses. These results could also be extended further to target the monitoring of other ions in different industrial sectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: GHz spectroscopy; ions monitoring; strontium sulfate; scale monitoring; celestite; scaling sensor; reusability; microwave sensing; seawater; strontium ions GHz spectroscopy; ions monitoring; strontium sulfate; scale monitoring; celestite; scaling sensor; reusability; microwave sensing; seawater; strontium ions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bouchalkha, A.; Karli, R.; Alhammadi, K. Reusable Sensor for Strontium Sulfate Scale Monitoring in Seawater. Materials 2021, 14, 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030676

AMA Style

Bouchalkha A, Karli R, Alhammadi K. Reusable Sensor for Strontium Sulfate Scale Monitoring in Seawater. Materials. 2021; 14(3):676. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030676

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bouchalkha, Abdellatif; Karli, Radouane; Alhammadi, Khalid. 2021. "Reusable Sensor for Strontium Sulfate Scale Monitoring in Seawater" Materials 14, no. 3: 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030676

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