2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Elaboration of Composites
2.3. Characterization of the Elaborated Panels
2.4. Raw Material Recycling and Characterization
2.5. Statistical Analysis
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Materials Characterization
3.2. Modulus of Rupture and Modulus of Elasticity
3.3. Internal Bond
3.4. Thickness Swelling and Water Absorption
3.5. Density and Density Profiles
3.6. Recycled Material Characterization
- It has been confirmed that lignocellulosic particles of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), being an orchard waste, can be successfully upcycled and used to produce lignocellulosic composites, thus having a positive contribution to carbon storage.
- The bulk density of chokeberry particles on the outer layers is slightly higher than that of industrial particles. The inverse relationship occurs in the case of particles on the core layers. The particles in both layers are characterized by a lower density than the reference (industrial) particles for raspberry.
- With an increase in the proportion of black chokeberry or raspberry particles in the particleboard, the bending strength and modulus of elasticity decreases.
- A significant influence of the content of black chokeberry and raspberry particles was found on the perpendicular tensile strength (IB) of the tested composites: a significant increase with raspberry particles increasing and decrease with chokeberry particles increasing.
- The thickness swelling of raspberry-containing composites increases after 2 h and 24 h of soaking in water. In the same conditions, the increase of chokeberry particle contents causes a lower thickness swelling.
- The water absorption test showed increasing dynamics of water absorption for boards with a higher proportion of chokeberry and raspberry particles, but in the long run, boards made of chokeberry particles absorb less water than the reference and raspberry composites.
- The highest density of face layers has been found for reference composites made of industrial particles, which influence the bending features of the tested composites.
- Further use of particles produced from re-milled composites can be limited due to the shape of the re-milled particles, which, in the case of industrial and raspberry particles, is significantly different from unprocessed particles.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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