Antimicrobial textile structures are developed based on polypropylene (PP) and a natural material, hydrolyzed casein. The casein, from bovine milk, is subjected to acid hydrolysis in aqueous media, then blended into the PP matrix in the melt phase by extrusion. The obtained blend, containing 5 wt.% of hydrolyzed casein, is then processed by a melt spinning process to get multifilaments, leading to the production knitting structures. Thanks to the addition of the hydrolyzed casein, the obtained textile showed a strong antibacterial activity towards both Gram (+) and Gram (−) bacterial strains. The addition of 5 wt.% hydrolyzed casein does not significantly impact the mechanical properties of PP in the dumbbells form, but a small decrease was observed in the tenacity of the filaments. No moisture retention was observed after the addition of hydrolyzed casein, but the rheological behavior was slightly affected. The obtained results can contribute to addressing concerns regarding nonrenewable antibacterial agents used in textile materials, particularly their effects on the environment and human health, by offering antibacterial agents from a biobased and edible substance with high efficiency. They are also promising to respond to issues of wasting dairy products and recycling them, in addition to the advantages of using melt processes.
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