Next Article in Journal
Powder Reuse Cycles in Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion—Variation of Powder Characteristics
Next Article in Special Issue
Vertical and Orovestibular Forces Generated by Beta-Titanium and Stainless-Steel Rectangular Wires in Labial and Fully Customized Lingual Bracket Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Synergistical Performance Modification of Epoxy Resin by Nanofillers and Carboxyl-Terminated Liquid Nitrile–Butadiene Rubber
Previous Article in Special Issue
Direct 3D Printing of Clear Orthodontic Aligners: Current State and Future Possibilities
Article

Bacterial Exposure to Nickel: Influence on Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Archwires and Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Agents

1
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
2
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
3
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
4
Department of Medical Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
5
Department of Dental Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sandra Maria Fernandes Carvalho
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164603
Received: 3 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Orthodontic Materials)
The presence of nickel could modify bacterial behavior and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Adhesion and biofilm formation on orthodontic archwires can be a source of bacterial colonization and possible health hazards. Staphylococcus aureus was subjected to exposure and adaptation to various sub-inhibitory concentrations of nickel. Five strains of bacteria adapted to nickel in concentrations of 62.5–1000 μg/mL were tested for adhesion and biofilm formation on nickel-titanium archwires. Archwires were previously incubated in artificial saliva. Bacteria were incubated with orthodontic wire with stirring for 4 h (adhesion) and 24 h (biofilm formation). The number of adherent bacteria was determined after sonication and cultivation on the Muller-Hinton agar. Disk diffusion method was performed on all bacteria to assess the differences in antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteria adapted to lower concentrations of nickel adhered better to nickel-titanium than strains adapted to higher concentrations of nickel (p < 0.05). Biofilm formation was highest in strains adapted to 250 and 500 μg/mL of nickel (p < 0.05). The highest biofilm biomass was measured for strains adapted to 250 μg/mL, followed by those adapted to 1000 μg/mL. Bacteria adapted to lower concentrations of nickel demonstrated lower inhibition zone diameters in the disk diffusion method (p < 0.05), indicating increased antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, bacteria adapted to 250 μg/mL of nickel ions adhered better, demonstrated higher biofilm formation and often had higher antimicrobial resistance than other adapted and non-adapted strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; nickel; biofilm; adhesion; orthodontic archwire; antimicrobial resistance bacteria; nickel; biofilm; adhesion; orthodontic archwire; antimicrobial resistance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pavlic, A.; Begic, G.; Tota, M.; Abram, M.; Spalj, S.; Gobin, I. Bacterial Exposure to Nickel: Influence on Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Archwires and Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Agents. Materials 2021, 14, 4603. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164603

AMA Style

Pavlic A, Begic G, Tota M, Abram M, Spalj S, Gobin I. Bacterial Exposure to Nickel: Influence on Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Archwires and Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Agents. Materials. 2021; 14(16):4603. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164603

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pavlic, Andrej, Gabrijela Begic, Marin Tota, Maja Abram, Stjepan Spalj, and Ivana Gobin. 2021. "Bacterial Exposure to Nickel: Influence on Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Archwires and Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Agents" Materials 14, no. 16: 4603. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164603

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop