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Article

Additively Manufactured Zirconia for Dental Applications

1
Department of Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan
2
Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan
3
Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188, Japan
4
Basic Oral Health Engineering, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan
5
Department of Oral Health Sciences, BIOMAT & UZ Leuven (University Hospitals Leuven), Dentistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), 3000 Leuven, Belgium
6
Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), 3001 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal first author.
Academic Editor: Jens Fischer
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3694; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133694
Received: 11 June 2021 / Revised: 27 June 2021 / Accepted: 28 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zirconia Implants: Current Status and Future Prospects)
We aimed to assess the crystallography, microstructure and flexural strength of zirconia-based ceramics made by stereolithography (SLA). Two additively manufactured 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP: LithaCon 3Y 230, Lithoz; 3D Mix zirconia, 3DCeram Sinto) and one alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ: 3D Mix ATZ, 3DCeram Sinto) were compared to subtractively manufactured 3Y-TZP (control: LAVA Plus, 3M Oral Care). Crystallographic analysis was conducted by X-ray diffraction. Top surfaces and cross-sections of the subsurface microstructure were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biaxial flexural strength was statistically compared using Weibull analysis. The additively and subtractively manufactured zirconia grades revealed a similar phase composition. The residual porosity of the SLA 3Y-TZPs and ATZ was comparable to that of subtractively manufactured 3Y-TZP. Weibull analysis revealed that the additively manufactured LithaCon 3Y 230 (Lithoz) had a significantly lower biaxial flexural strength than 3D Mix ATZ (3D Ceram Sinto). The biaxial flexural strength of the subtractively manufactured LAVA Plus (3M Oral Care) was in between those of the additively manufactured 3Y-TZPs, with the additively manufactured ATZ significantly outperforming the subtractively manufactured 3Y-TZP. Additively manufactured 3Y-TZP showed comparable crystallography, microstructure and flexural strength as the subtractively manufactured zirconia, thus potentially being a good option for dental implants. View Full-Text
Keywords: zirconia; additive manufacturing; subtractive manufacturing; alumina-toughened zirconia; X-ray diffraction (XRD); Rietveld refinement; Weibull analysis; microstructural analysis zirconia; additive manufacturing; subtractive manufacturing; alumina-toughened zirconia; X-ray diffraction (XRD); Rietveld refinement; Weibull analysis; microstructural analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakai, H.; Inokoshi, M.; Nozaki, K.; Komatsu, K.; Kamijo, S.; Liu, H.; Shimizubata, M.; Minakuchi, S.; Van Meerbeek, B.; Vleugels, J.; Zhang, F. Additively Manufactured Zirconia for Dental Applications. Materials 2021, 14, 3694. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133694

AMA Style

Nakai H, Inokoshi M, Nozaki K, Komatsu K, Kamijo S, Liu H, Shimizubata M, Minakuchi S, Van Meerbeek B, Vleugels J, Zhang F. Additively Manufactured Zirconia for Dental Applications. Materials. 2021; 14(13):3694. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133694

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakai, Hiroto, Masanao Inokoshi, Kosuke Nozaki, Keiji Komatsu, Shingo Kamijo, Hengyi Liu, Makoto Shimizubata, Shunsuke Minakuchi, Bart Van Meerbeek, Jef Vleugels, and Fei Zhang. 2021. "Additively Manufactured Zirconia for Dental Applications" Materials 14, no. 13: 3694. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133694

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