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Article

Competition Effects during Femtosecond Laser Induced Element Redistribution in Ba- and La-Migration Based Laser Written Waveguides

1
Laser Processing Group, Institute of Optics (IO, CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid, Spain
2
Electronic Engineering Department, National Technological Institute of Mexico, Campus Acatlan de Osorio, Carretera Acatlan—San Juan Ixcaquistla k.m. 5.5, Acatlan de Osorio 74949, Mexico
3
Institute of Ceramics and Glass (ICV, CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Materials Physics, Faculty of Physics, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors equally contributed to the manuscript.
Academic Editors: Jörg Krüger and Jörn Bonse
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123185
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 9 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Pulse Laser Machining Technology)
Fs-laser induced element redistribution (FLIER) has been a subject of intensive research in recent years. Its application to various types of glasses has already resulted in the production of efficient optical waveguides, tappers, amplifiers and lasers. Most of the work reported on FLIER-based waveguides refers to structures produced by the cross-migration of alkali (Na, K) and lanthanides (mostly La). The latter elements act as refractive index carrying elements. Herein, we report the production of Ba-based, FLIER-waveguides in phosphate glass with an index contrast > 10−2. Phosphate glasses modified with the same amount of Na2O and K2O, and variable amounts of BaO and/or La2O3 were used to produce the FLIER-waveguides with Ba and or La acting as index carriers. Ba-only modified glasses show a waveguide writing threshold and light guiding performance comparable to that of La-based structures. However, mixed Ba-La glasses show a much higher element migration threshold, and much smaller compositionally modified regions. This behavior is consistent with a competition effect in the cross-migration of both elements (Ba and La) against the alkalis. Such an effect can be applied to inhibit undesired element redistribution effects in fs-laser processing applications in multicomponent glasses. View Full-Text
Keywords: fs-laser writing; waveguides; element redistribution; Soret effect; diffusion competition effects fs-laser writing; waveguides; element redistribution; Soret effect; diffusion competition effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Macias-Montero, M.; Moreno-Zárate, P.; Muñoz, F.; Sotillo, B.; Garcia-Pardo, M.; Serna, R.; Fernandez, P.; Solis, J. Competition Effects during Femtosecond Laser Induced Element Redistribution in Ba- and La-Migration Based Laser Written Waveguides. Materials 2021, 14, 3185. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123185

AMA Style

Macias-Montero M, Moreno-Zárate P, Muñoz F, Sotillo B, Garcia-Pardo M, Serna R, Fernandez P, Solis J. Competition Effects during Femtosecond Laser Induced Element Redistribution in Ba- and La-Migration Based Laser Written Waveguides. Materials. 2021; 14(12):3185. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123185

Chicago/Turabian Style

Macias-Montero, Manuel, Pedro Moreno-Zárate, Francisco Muñoz, Belén Sotillo, Marina Garcia-Pardo, Rosalía Serna, Paloma Fernandez, and Javier Solis. 2021. "Competition Effects during Femtosecond Laser Induced Element Redistribution in Ba- and La-Migration Based Laser Written Waveguides" Materials 14, no. 12: 3185. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123185

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