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Article

Tooth Movement Efficacy of Retraction Spring Made of a New Low Elastic Modulus Material, Gum Metal, Evaluated by the Finite Element Method

1
Department of Dental Informatics, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8525, Japan
2
Private Practice in Tamaya Orthodontic Office, Fukui 910-0851, Japan
3
Private Practice in Kawamura Dental Office, Gifu 502-0847, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Francesca Sfondrini and Ivana Miletić
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112934
Received: 10 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 29 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Techniques for Orthodontics)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the tooth movement efficacy of retraction springs made of a new β-titanium alloy, “gum metal”, which has a low Young’s modulus and nonlinear super elasticity. Using double loop springs incorporated into an archwire made of gum metal (GUM) and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), the maxillary anterior teeth were moved distally to close an extraction space. The long-term movements were simulated by the finite element method. Its procedure was constructed of two steps, with the first step being the calculation of the initial tooth movement produced by elastic deformation of the periodontal ligament, and in the second step, the alveolar socket was moved by the initial tooth movement. By repeating these steps, the tooth moved by accumulating the initial tooth movement. The number of repeating calculations was equivalent to an elapsed time. In the GUM and TMA springs, the anterior teeth firstly tipped lingually, and then became upright. As a result of these movements, the canine could move bodily. The amount of space closure in GUM spring was 1.5 times that in TMA spring. The initial tipping angle of the canine in the GUM spring was larger than that in the TMA spring. The number of repeating calculations required for the bodily movement in the GUM spring was about two times that in the TMA spring. It was predicted that the speed of space closure in the GUM spring was smaller than that in the TMA spring. View Full-Text
Keywords: orthodontics; space closure; retraction spring; gum metal; finite element method orthodontics; space closure; retraction spring; gum metal; finite element method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tamaya, N.; Kawamura, J.; Yanagi, Y. Tooth Movement Efficacy of Retraction Spring Made of a New Low Elastic Modulus Material, Gum Metal, Evaluated by the Finite Element Method. Materials 2021, 14, 2934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112934

AMA Style

Tamaya N, Kawamura J, Yanagi Y. Tooth Movement Efficacy of Retraction Spring Made of a New Low Elastic Modulus Material, Gum Metal, Evaluated by the Finite Element Method. Materials. 2021; 14(11):2934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112934

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tamaya, Naohiko, Jun Kawamura, and Yoshinobu Yanagi. 2021. "Tooth Movement Efficacy of Retraction Spring Made of a New Low Elastic Modulus Material, Gum Metal, Evaluated by the Finite Element Method" Materials 14, no. 11: 2934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112934

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