# Investigation of Compression and Buckling Properties of a Novel Surface-Based Lattice Structure Manufactured Using Multi Jet Fusion Technology

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Material and Methodology

#### 2.1. Samples Design

#### 2.2. Additive Manufacturing and Testing

^{3}/h), and were placed near the center of the build unit in the same orientation to minimize the effects of the printing parameters. Three specimens were fabricated for each sample and can be seen in Figure 3. The mass of all the AM samples was recorded as the same (±5 g) compared to the CAD design. The reason for the increase in mass was powder sticking in the structures. Powder sticking inside the structures is the main reason for it, as explained in the coming sections. All the AM samples were compressed uniaxially according to the ASTM D1621-16 [45] using the universal testing machine, as shown in Figure 4. The MTS machine (MTS Systems Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) was used to investigate the deflection versus loading, energy absorption, and samples’ failure mechanism. The specimens were tested with a machine loading capacity of 10 kN and a crosshead speed of 10% (3 mm/min) of the total height of samples. However, another higher compression capacity—100 kN—computer-controlled 810 MTS machine (MTS Systems Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) was used to test the high strength structures [44]. The complete experimental setup is shown in Figure 5.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Deformation and Fracture of 3 × 3 × 3 Structures

#### 3.2. Buckling and Fracture of 2 × 2 × 15 Structure

#### 3.3. Specific Strength

#### 3.3.1. Specific Strength of 3 × 3 × 3 Structure

#### 3.3.2. Specific Strength of 2 × 2 × 15 Structure

#### 3.4. Experimental Data Validation

#### 3.5. Challenges and Recommendation

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Three specimens of each sample were printed by additive manufacturing (Multi Jet Fusion 3D Printer). (

**a**) OS structure with constant mass; (

**b**) SU structure with constant mass; (

**c**) OS structure with constant wall thickness; (

**d**) SU structure with constant wall thickness.

**Figure 5.**Compressive performance of both 3 × 3 × 3 structures under uniaxial load, (

**a**) structure with same relative densities, (

**b**) structure with the same wall thickness with an enlarged view of minimum.

**Figure 6.**Performance of SU and OS structures with M and T at various stages under progressive compression—from left to the right side—(above), enlarged complete densification stage of each structure shown failure mechanism (below). (

**a**) SU-M structure at 100% compression; (

**b**) OS-M structure at 100% compression; (

**c**) SU-T structure at 100% compression; (

**d**) OS-T structure at 100% compression.

**Figure 7.**The picture shows the powder presence in the OS-T structures after mechanical testing, (

**a**) SU 3 × 3 × 3, (

**b**) OS 2 × 2 × 15 structure, (

**c**) some quantity of powder removed after compression testing.

**Figure 8.**Critical buckling load of (

**a**) same relative density column, (

**b**) same wall thickness column.

**Figure 9.**The figure (

**above**) shows the overall buckling of each 2 × 2 × 15 structure under percentages of compression. While the (

**below**) figures show an inner failure mechanism ((1) and (3) shows failure of SU structure while (2) and (4) shows the failure of OS structure) of the structure in which all (M and T) failed at the cell center, only OS-T is failed at the cell joints.

**Figure 10.**Specific strength of 3 × 3 × 3 lattice structures, (

**a**) same density, (

**b**) same wall thickness, (

**c**) combined graph of both samples.

**Figure 11.**Specific strength of 2 × 2 × 15 lattice structures, (

**a**) same density, (

**b**) same wall thickness, (

**c**) combined graph of both samples.

**Figure 12.**Numerical compression of the 2 × 2 × 15 structure with eigenvalue buckling analysis in ANSYS static structure.

Topology | Mass of a Unit Cell (g) | Wall Thickness (mm) | Dimensions of Structure(mm) | Relative Density of Designed Models (%) | Relative Density of AM Parts (%) | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Height | Width | Breadth | |||||

SU-M (3 × 3 × 3) | 0.27 | 2.3 | 30 | 30 | 30 | 28 | 29 |

OS-M (3 × 3 × 3) | 0.27 | 0.65 | 30 | 30 | 30 | 28 | 25 |

SU-M (2 × 2 × 15) | 0.27 | 2.3 | 149 | 20 | 20 | 28 | 27 |

OS-M (2 × 2 × 15) | 0.27 | 0.65 | 149 | 20 | 20 | 28 | 24 |

SU-T (3 × 3 × 3) | 0.127 | 1 | 30 | 30 | 30 | 13.5 | 10.5 |

OS-T (3 × 3 × 3) | 0.39 | 1 | 30 | 30 | 30 | 39 | 45 |

SU-T (2 × 2 × 15) | 0.127 | 1 | 149 | 20 | 20 | 13.5 | 10 |

OS-T (2 × 2 × 15) | 0.39 | 1 | 149 | 20 | 20 | 39 | 40 |

**Table 2.**PA 12 material linear properties [42].

Density (g/cm^{3}) | Young’s Modulus (MPa) | Poisson’s Ratio | Tensile Strength (MPa) | Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) |
---|---|---|---|---|

1.01 | 1437 | 0.33 | 27 | 44 |

**Table 3.**PA12 material non-linear properties [42].

True stress(MPa) | 27.12 | 30.00 | 34.09 | 37.00 | 40.01 | 43.02 | 46.00 | 48.03 | 50.00 | 52.69 |

True plastic strain (mm/mm) | 0 | 0.002 | 0.007 | 0.011 | 0.016 | 0.023 | 0.032 | 0.040 | 0.050 | 0.077 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Nazir, A.; Ali, M.; Jeng, J.-Y.
Investigation of Compression and Buckling Properties of a Novel Surface-Based Lattice Structure Manufactured Using Multi Jet Fusion Technology. *Materials* **2021**, *14*, 2599.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14102599

**AMA Style**

Nazir A, Ali M, Jeng J-Y.
Investigation of Compression and Buckling Properties of a Novel Surface-Based Lattice Structure Manufactured Using Multi Jet Fusion Technology. *Materials*. 2021; 14(10):2599.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14102599

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Nazir, Aamer, Mubasher Ali, and Jeng-Ywan Jeng.
2021. "Investigation of Compression and Buckling Properties of a Novel Surface-Based Lattice Structure Manufactured Using Multi Jet Fusion Technology" *Materials* 14, no. 10: 2599.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14102599